Обобщающий урок: "Национальные праздники США"
Обобщающий урок: "Национальные праздники США"
1. Введение (проблема, новизна, актуальность).
Мир вступает в XXI век…
Реалии глобальной взаимозависимости и культурного разнообразия нашей планеты в XXI веке определяют потребность в образовании и воспитании поколения с новым типом мышления, новым отношением к жизни; поколения, способного успешно самоопределиться в условиях быстро меняющегося мира.
Эта проблема особенно актуальна для России, где за последнее время происходят колоссальные изменения как в политической, экономической, так и в социальной сфере. Постепенно, но необратимо происходит интеграция России в мировое сообщество. Проблемы, которые ранее считались местными, региональными, сегодня становятся глобальными, а их успешное решение возможно в том случае, если будут объединены усилия всех стран и народов.
Изучение английского языка в концепции глобального образования направлено на решение задачи формирования кросс-культурной грамотности учащихся. Феномен кросс-культурной грамотности предполагает развитие способности понимать и ценить культуру других народов, формирование непредвзятого взгляда на мир, ломку сложившихся стереотипов, искажающих восприятие иной культуры, обучение культуре общения. В связи с этим встаёт вопрос о ценности, духовном и нравственном наполнении содержания знаний, о приоритетности тех или иных учебных программ по английскому языку, о развивающем и воспитывающем потенциале иностранного языка как учебного предмета.
Английский язык, как язык международного общения, предполагает включение разнообразной тематики для диалога с миром: культура, искусство, литература, образование, наука, политика, глобальные проблемы человечества. Таким образом, наряду с формированием языковой компетенции, отводится огромная роль социокультурной компетенции.
Развивающей и воспитывающий потенциал процесса обучения иностранным языкам можно охарактеризовать с помощью определения следующих целей обучения:
- формирование у учащихся уважения и интереса к культуре страны изучаемого языка;
- воспитание культуры общения и потребности в практическом использовании языка в различных сферах деятельности;
- развитие языковых, интеллектуальных и познавательных способностей, ценностей, ориентаций, чувств и эмоций ученика, т.е. раскрытие гуманистического и гуманитарного потенциала его личности.
В последние годы в образовании актуальной является задача формирования целостного мировоззрения у учащихся. В качестве одного из возможных подходов можно рассматривать ориентацию содержания изучаемого курса (английского языка) на развитие кросс-культурной грамотности учащихся. Кросс-культурная грамотность позволяет видеть общее и индивидуальное в культуре других народов осознавать ценность каждой культуры в мировом поликультурном пространстве. Благодаря полному представлению о традициях, обычаях, языке своей и другой культуры и формируется целостное представление о мире как одном большом доме, в котором живут разные народы, отличающиеся друг от друга и в тоже время объединённые общими стремлениями к миру, добру, счастью. Эта идея ориентирует учителя на формирование у учащихся непредвзятого взгляда на мир, на осознание состояния планеты, на понимание закономерностей глобальных динамических процессов, на формирование кросс-культурной грамотности и на умение осуществлять осознанный выбор способа действия с ориентацией на гуманистические ценности. В учебно-воспитательном процессе данные идеи рассматриваются как ценностно-смысловые ориентиры, определяющие выбор содержания обучения и характер отношений между участниками воспитательно-образовательного процесса.
2. Цели урока:
- формирование у учащихся уважения и интереса к культуре страны изучаемого языка;
- обобщение ранее изученного материала по данной теме;
- активизация в речи употребления страдательного залога;
- повторение артиклей;
- развитие творческих способностей учащихся.
3. Ход урока:
1. Организационный момент:
Students, today we are going to have a final talk about national celebrations of the USA. Beforehand you were divided into several creative groups, which had the task to prepare the presentation of one American holiday.
2. Before it, give the definition what holiday is.
Дайте определение праздника:
National holiday is
- a holiday, which is celebrated by the whole nation;
- a holiday which unites the citizens of the country and the members of the family;
- when people enjoy themselves watching national football matches and parades and go picnicking;
- when people remember historical events connected with the glorious pages of the past of the country and mark the anniversary.
3. Say when the following festivals are celebrated in the USA. Скажите, когда следующие праздники отмечаются в англо-говорящих странах:
New Year’s Day
St. Valentine’s Day
April Fools’ Day
October, 2nd Monday
September, 1st Monday
November, 1st Tuesday
May, 2nd Sunday
4. Составьте диалоги о наиболее значимых национальных американских праздниках. Make up dialogues about the most remarkable national holidays of the USA:
a) What holidays are the most popular in the USA?
-There are a lot of them, but each state has a right to decide which holiday to celebrate. There are national holidays, which are celebrated in nearly all the USA. They are Independence Day, Thanksgiving Day, Christmas, St. Valentine’s Day, Halloween, Columbus Day and so on.
-Are the holidays of religious origin?
-Some of them are of religious origin, such as Easter, Christmas, Halloween, but the others are connected with some historical events in the past. They are Columbus Day, Independence Day, Thanksgiving Day.
5. Первая группа представляет свой праздник День Святого Валентина. The first group makes the presentation of the holiday St. Valentine’s Day.
St. Valentine’s Day
No one knows how Valentine’ s Day first started. There are several different theories. The first theory took place in Roman times, about 2,700 years ago. Rome is a city in Italy and when it was built, hungry wolves surrounded city walls and howled at night. They ate the people’ s sheep and sometimes even killed people. The Romans were afraid of the wolves, so they prayed to one of their gods Lupercus, to protect them. Lupercus was the Roman god who watched over sheep and shepherds. They prayed to this god on a special holiday named Lupercalia. This holiday was held on February 15th each year. Even after the wolves had disappeared, the Romans kept celebrating the holiday because they enjoyed it. But as the years passed, Lupercus became less important to the people and they started celebrating a holiday for Juno instead. Juno was the queen of the Roman gods. She ruled over marriage. This was a holiday for love. On this day, young Roman women wrote their names on February 14th, and the names they drew would be their partners for dances and games on this holiday.
There is another story about a man named Valentine. Valentine was a Christian priest in Roman Empire 3 hundred years after the death of Jesus Christ. When the Roman Emperor Claudius II needed soldiers, he made a law against marrying because he felt that marriage made men want to stay home instead of fighting wars. But Valentine couldn’t agree with the Emperor’s decision. When he saw that young couples were truly in love he married them secretly. He had been thrown in prison. There Valentine performed miracle – he cured the jailer’s daughter from her blindness. And they had fallen in love with each other. On February 14th Valentine was beheaded, and at the night before he was executed he wrote a letter to the jailer’s daughter signing “From your Valentine”. The Christian Church took for his saint’s day February 14th. So, this day became a day of love.
Still another possible origin for Valentine’s Day took place in Europe hundreds of years ago. People noticed that some birds chose their mates around February 14th. Since birds did this, they thought people should, too. Today we see birds used on valentine cards. They stand for the times when people believed that birds chose their mates for life around Valentine’ s Day. Today we call two people who are very happy together ”lovebirds.”
We sometimes see Cupid on valentines. He evolved from the Greek god called Eros, the god of love. Cupid is a chubby little baby with wings and curly hair. He usually shoots an arrow into people’ s hearts. This arrow does not hurt them, but makes them fall in love with someone.
Ribbons on valentines go back to the knights on horseback. Women would give a little piece of ribbon to a knight when he went to war. He would carry this ribbon to remind him of his love.
Roses and flowers are often seen on valentines. The rose is known as the flower of love. Violets and bachelor’ s buttons are also seen on valentine cards. One story says that Saint Valentine sent notes on violets from his jail cell. The birds carried the notes to people.
Lace symbolizes a net for catching one’s heart. If you put lace on your Valentine, you are supposed to catch the heart of the person you give it to.
It isn’t a national holiday. Bank and offices don’t close but it is a happy festival in honor of St.Valentine, patron of sweethearts and lovers. It is widely celebrated among people of all ages by the exchange of “valentines”. A valentine may mean a specially greeting card or a little present. The greeting cards are often colored red and have red trimmings and pictures of hearts.
6. Напишите прощальное письмо священника перед смертью к его возлюбленной. Write a farewell message of the priest Valentine to his sweetheart:
My Dear Girl, when I saw you for the first time I immediately fell in love with you. I couldn’t help admiring you and I couldn’t afford such a beautiful girl to suffer. My heart was full of delight. I am so glad that I could help you, but I am just a young bishop and I can’t go against God’s will. Believe me, that even in the paradise I shall remember you forever. But alas, I must say goodbye. Tomorrow I shall leave you, but you must know, that I love you.
7. Match the symbols of love with their definitions.Соотнесите символы любви, используемые в День Святого Валентина, с их определениями:
The Endless-love Knot
It means that the person is tied up.
It symbolizes a net for catching one’s heart.
The Roman god of love is depicted as a charming boy with a bow and arrows. He shoots his arrows into the human hearts. The wounded person immediately falls in love.
It is an intricate pattern of interlocking hearts that is generally hand-drawn.
Hearts and red roses
It is the emblem of eternal love.
8. Compose the short versus to your sweet heart. Придумайте стихи поздравления своим любимым.
Those happy days
And you are mine,
I know many ways
To make you happy, Valentine .
I enjoy this day
It’s only mine.
I give you a flower-
This is my sign.
My love lasts for hours
And years, you’re my Valentine
I know many ways
To be your Valentine.
I give you many flowers
And card I don’t sign.
Many warm words are ours
At St. Valentine!
A small boy Cupid
Shoots your hearts with arrow.
And now you are stupid
Because you’ve got a sorrow.
9. We have just learnt Passive Voice. Find and name the form of the verb in the Passive Voice and translate the sentences:
- 1. Christmas Day has been celebrated since Pagan times. 2. Many old Russian traditions have been revived in our country. 3. The birthday cake with 20 candles has been brought in. 4. His anniversary has been celebrated throughout the country. 5. Easter eggs have been painted. 6. The pie has been eaten, the speeches have been made and the wedding presents have been opened. 7. Have you been asked this question? 8. The newspapers haven't been delivered yet.
- What is being done in the house for the guests? - The whole house is being decorated; the guest-room is being washed and cleaned; in the sitting-room the TV-set is being fixed and big dinner is being cooked, a cake is being baked and celebration cards are being written for the guests. What else can be done? - Some flowers can be cut and brought in from the garden. - Is the table being laid? - Yes, it is.
- 1. The second course was followed by fruit salad. 2. His name is often referred to in the articles. 3. He is such a bore. He is never listened to. 4. The policeman has been sent for. 5. This film was much spoken about. 6. We were treated to ice-cream. 7. If you wear this hat you'll be laughed at. 8. We were shown around the building. 9. Your luggage will be looked after.
10. Watch the episode from “Family Album, USA” about celebration of Thanksgiving Day in the USA. And give the answers to the following questions:
- Why was grandpa so merry when he was watching a parade on TV?
- What was the parade like?
- What did the Stuards thank each other for?
11. The next group gives the presentation of Thanksgiving Day.
To my mind Thanksgiving Day is the most popular American national holiday. In XV century European people wanted to trade with China. But the way to China was too dangerous and expensive. That's why Christopher Columbus wanted to find a new route to this country. He didn't find new way, but in 1492 he opened New World (now it's North America). A lot of people came to the New World for different reasons: trade; freedom of religion; the freedom of politician; and some economic reasons. The first colonies appeared in Virginia in 1607 along the eastern coast of North America. In 1620 the first group of pilgrims came to the New World. They came there too late so they couldn't get good crops. That's why, more then half of them died in the first winter. Next year the people who lived in America - Indians, taught the pilgrims how to survive there. They showed them a lot of new kinds of food: potato, corn. Indians taught the pilgrims how to hunt, fish, get a good harvest. That year people got a great harvest, and they called their friends - Indians, and gave them their thanks with a huge dinner. So in 1621 was born a new American national holiday - Thanksgiving Day. Now it's celebrated on the 4th Thursday of November. On this day everyone comes to the house of his parents and they have a great Thanksgiving dinner.
12. Guess the holiday:
- It is a public American Holiday, which is dedicated to the birth of the state.
- The festival in honour of all saints, now celebrated as a masquerade with costumes of different wicked characters such as witches, skeletons, ghosts.
- For this holiday people buy greeting cards and flowers and give presents to women.
- The holiday connected with some historical events, when people get together and thank for the good things that they have.
- This holiday is marked in honour of the resurrection of Jesus.
- A celebration where the people show their affection to each other.
- All the people have a lot of fun, they play jokes on each other. This is the day of national good humour.
April Fool’s Day, Independence Day, Easter, Thanksgiving Day, Mother’s Day, Halloween, St. Valentine Day.
13. Read the legend and guess the holiday. Прочитайте легенду и угадайте о каком празднике идёт речь:
Once upon a time there was a big forest through which many travelers went to get to the town on the other side. The forest was so big and dark that the travelers often got lost. They tried to find their way and finally came to a pretty little cottage where a witch tricked the poor travelers by placing a magic spell on them. One day a poor little girl got lost in the forest. It grew very dark and the girl was frightened. She tried many times to light the candle but couldn't. Then the poor girl walked under a big nut-tree but the witch turned the nut over the little girl's head into a pumpkin. The girl felt around in the dark and found out a pumpkin. She hollowed it and put the candle into the pumpkin, and then put it on her head. After a while she came to the witch's cottage. On seeing a horrible two-headed monster the witch fell down on the stone floor and soon died. The magic spell was lifted and the travelers were saved.
14. The next group presents the project “Halloween.”Следующая группа учащихся представляет проект праздника Хеллоуин.
October 31 is a very special holiday for children called Halloween. In old times the night of October 31 was the last night of the year when all the witches and ghost were out. It was a celebration of dead souls.
Now Halloween is a holiday for children. But originally, it was a religious holiday. Children make faces on pumpkins and put a candle inside. These pumpkins are called jack-o'-lanterns. All children are dressed in costumes of ghosts, clowns, goblins, witches, vampires, pirates, etc. Many of the costumes are witches in white sheets, trying to scare the winter spirits. Many of them wear masks. They do not know who is who and try to guess who is behind the masks.
There are Halloween parties in many schools. Children begin to prepare for the party long before, sometimes weeks before the holiday. During the holiday there is usually a parade of costumes, and the participants and the guests of the holiday choose the most original costume. They have some special things to eat and to drink: apple juice, popcorn, caramel apples, candies, oranges.
The party is always fun, with jokes, games, mysteries, witches, scarecrows, black cats, bats and other characters that try to frighten the others.
Dressed in costumes children go to the different people's home, ring at the door saying, "Trick or treat, smell my feet, give me something good to eat". This means that if people do not give them candies or apples or other tasty things, the children may play a trick on them (shaving cream on the car or on the door, for example).
In the old days "trick or treat" had to perform songs and shifts for their neighbors. If the neighbors liked the performance, the children received a "treat" - fruit or candy. If not, the neighbors played a trick on the children - like throwing water on them.
A favorite game at Halloween parties is ducking for apples. Apples swim in the water in a big bowl. Children are to get one. Each child holds a fork in his (her) mouth and tries to stab an apple. The children get very wet but enjoy themselves greatly.
15. Guess the holidays, which these poems and songs are devoted to.Угадайте праздники, которым посвящены эти стихи и песни.
a. I heard the bells on Christmas Day
Their old familiar carols play,
And wild and sweet
The words repeat
Of peace on earth, good will to men.
b. The rose is red, the violets are blue,
The honey’s sweet and so are you.
Thou art my love and I am thine
I drew thee to my Valentine.
The lost was cast and when I drew
And fortune said it should be you.
H. W. Longfellow
a. Three little ghosts on Halloween night
Saw a witch and shrieked in fright.
The witch just laughed and shouted, “Boo!”
One ghost ran home and that left too.
b. Two little ghosts in two little sheets
Went to a door to say “Trick or treat.”
But when the door swung open wide,
A scary goblin stood inside.
c. One ghost gulped and said to the other,
“I’m going home and stay with my mother.”
Of the little ghosts, there was now one alone,
Too frightened to utter a groan or moan,
One little ghost who shivered and shook
With every single step he took.
A Friday-cat ghost can’t have much fun,
Se he cried, “Wait for me!” and then there was none.
Mary Alice Kelly
Auld Lang Syne.
a. Should auld acquaintance be forgot,
And never brought to mind?
Should auld acquaintance be forgot,
And days of auld lang syne?
Chorus; For auld lang syne, my dear, for auld lang syne,
We’ll take a cup of kindness yet for auld lanf syne.
And here’s a hand, my trusty friend,
And give a hand of thine;
We’ll take a cup of kindness yet
For auld lang syne.
b.The Doorbell is ringing,
Better hurry and see!
It might be the postman
With a present for me.
It might be a farmer
With a bag of hay,
Or a clown from the circus
Who just wants to play.
It might be a spaceman
Coming in for a call,
But today‘s April Fools’ Day-
There is no one at all!
16. Use the articles where necessary. Используйте артикли, где это необходимо.
Most people in … Britain see Christmas as … major festival of … year – when parties are given and gifts are received. Almost all … people are having fun on Christmas Eve, especially children. On Christmas Eve, children hang … stocking at … end of their beds or over … fire-place. They are told that Father Pole and fills each stocking with … presents. The children open their presents – put there secretly by their parents – on Christmas morning.
Lunch is … most important point on Christmas Day. … traditional lunch consists of … roast turkey with … vegetables, followed by Christmas pudding, which is made with … dried fruit and … brandy. Sometimes … coin is put in … pudding as … surprise.
… day after Christmas is called Boxing Day (after the church box which was opened for … poor on that day) and this too is … public holiday.
New Year’s Eve in Scotland.
People all over … Britain celebrate … passing of … old year and … coming of … new. In Scotland, Hogmanay – as it is called there – is almost as important as Christmas. … Scots take New Year’s Eve very seriously. There is a New Year Eve Fire Festival; ... men parade with blazing tar barrels, they throw them into … great bonfire. The “First Boots” then set out.
In Scotland “first footing” is … common custom: it’s considered lucky if … dark-haired man is … first to set foot in … house after midnight on Hogmanay, bringing … coin, … peace of … bread, or … lump of .. coal as … symbol of plenty for … coming year.
17. Another group tells about Easter.Другая группа рассказывает о Пасхе.
Easter is the time when certain traditions are observed. It is celebrated either as the start of spring or a religious festival. In England presents traditionally take the form of an Easter egg. Easter eggs are usually made of chocolate. Nowadays, Easter eggs are often artificial. But they haven’t been used before the middle of the last century and they haven’t displaced the true Easter eggs.
Easter eggs always grace breakfast tables on Easter Day. Sometimes they are hidden about the house for the children to find them.
There are some Easter games like egg-rolling and egg-shackling. Every year London greets the spring with Easter Parade in Battersea Park on Easter Sunday. The parade begins at 3 p.m.
18. Fill in the words. Вставьте слова (parades, constitution, observed, Independence, states, main, guns):
In the USA ___ there is no provision for national holidays. Each state has the right to decide which holiday to observe. Many ___ have holidays of their own, but there are also major holidays ___ in nearly all the USA.
The ___ holiday in the USA is Independence Day celebrated on the 4th of July. On that day in 1776 the Declaration of ___ was adopted. It is a patriotic holiday celebrated with firing of ___ , fireworks, ___ and open-air meetings.
Provision – положение, условие
Major - главный
Observe - соблюдать
Was adopted – была принята
19. The next group makes the presentation of Independence Day. Следующая группа делает презентацию Дня Независимости.
The 4th of July is the biggest national holiday of the USA. It is celebrated as the birthday of the country. July the 4th, 1776 when the American colonies were fighting with Britannia, the Continental Congress, adopted a resolution, which has come to be known as the Declaration of Independence.
In fact, the Declaration of Independence was a letter from the Continental Congress to the king of Great Britain. Tomas Jefferson wrote to the king that the people of America did not want to pay taxes. But the Declaration was just a letter, it didn’t make the American people independent of Britain. Though the Declaration of Independence has been adopted on July the 4th, it was not signed by the members of the congress on August the 2nd, 1776.
The Congress held it’s meeting in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The member met the Independence Hall and celebrated their first “Fourth of July”.
Philadelphia, which was founded in 1682 by William Penn, a prominent statesman, was a large city in Colonial America. Even now some parts of the old city remind one of the pasts. Visitors can walk the old streets, see the old houses and public buildings. In 1790 the first congress met in Philadelphia. It would be the capital of the USA while the federal capital in Washington D.C. was being built. It remained the capital for the next 10 years.
Americans still ring bells to celebrate Independence Day. They march on the parades. They decorate the graves of their dead soldiers. In the evening of the Fourth they shoot off fire-works in parks and fields.
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2. “Предметные недели в школе.''Составители: О.Н. Подгорская, Е.К. Черничкина.
3. “Лёгкий английский”. Выборова Г.Е.,Махмурян К.С., Мельчина О.П.
4. “О Британии вкратце”. Составители: В.В. Ощепкова, И.И. Шустилова.
5. “Тексты для устных ответов и письменных работ на английском языке”. Составитель: И.Ю. Баканова.
6. “Сборник разговорных тем по английскому языку.” А.П. Миньяр- Белоручева.