Методическое пособие «Культурно-исторические особенности своей страны»
|Тип||Другие методич. материалы|
Комитет по образованию администрации г. Моршанска
Культурно-исторические особенности своей страны:
учитель английского языка
МБОУ СОШ № 2
2. План-конспект урока «Мой любимый праздник»……………………5
3. Материал к урокам
«День Победы» …………………………………………………………….11
«Старый Новый Год»………………………………………………………12
«Международный Женский День»………………………………………..13
«Праздник Ивана Купалы»………………………………………………...14
4. Тексты с заданиями на понимание содержания
«Загадки российских праздников»…………………………………………15
«День Народного Единства»………………………………………………..16
5.Тексты с лексико-грамматическими заданиями
«Официальные праздники Российской Федерации»…………………...22--24
«Подарки к праздникам»………………………………………………….25-27
6. Методические рекомендации по подготовке к ЕГЭ,
7. Информационные ресурсы…………………………………………….30
Необходимость культуроведческого образования средствами иностранного языка уже прочно вошла в содержание обучения. В наши дни нередко возникает практическая необходимость рассказать на иностранном языке о родной стране, её культуре и обычаях, о родном крае, в котором живём, его достопримечательностях, памятных событиях, традициях. Эти темы выносятся на итоговый экзамен в 9 и 11 классах, требуя достаточного уровня сформированности социокультурной компетенции выпускников.
Данная разработка представляет собой методический пакет к теме «Культурно-исторические особенности своей страны».
Предлагаемая тематика - «Праздники и знаменательные даты». Несмотря на то, что современные учебники в довольно большом объёме содержат подобную информацию, возникает необходимость расширения и углубления знаний обучающихся. Прежде всего, это связано с учреждением таких праздников как День Народного Единства, День России, День Конституции. Подобные даты являются главными государственными праздниками любой страны, однако современный российский школьник гораздо более осведомлён, например, о Дне Независимости в США, нежели чем о знаменательных датах страны, гражданином которой он является. Отсутствие необходимого материала в учебниках можно объяснить относительно недавним сроком введения данных праздников и невысоким интересом к общественно-политической жизни страны, однако отрицать их важность и необходимость изучения невозможно.
Следующий момент - возникающие затруднения в связи с естественным отсутствием в учебниках материала о региональных традициях и обычаях. Решению этой проблемы способствовал выпуск сборника разработок уроков по региональному социокультурному компоненту «Край родной Тамбовский» (изд-во ТОИПКРО, 2002), включающий урок «Мой любимый праздник».
Представленная методическая разработка содержит переработанный и расширенный конспект урока « Мой любимый праздник», конспекты уроков по темам «День Победы», «Международный женский день», «Старый Новый Год», «Праздник Ивана Купалы», а также разнообразный дидактический материал по таким праздникам как День Народного Единства, День России, День Космонавтики, День Радио и т.д. Наряду с широко известными и всенародно отмечаемыми праздниками рассматриваются профессиональные праздники и семейные торжества, традиционные подарки, предлагается список официальных праздников страны.
Дидактический материал представлен в виде тематических текстов, с помощью которых формируются и отрабатываются навыки общего понимания прочитанного, умение понимать логические связи между предложениями и между частями текста. В методический комплект включены задания на установление соответствия, на понимание структурно-смысловых связей в тексте, а также упражнения, в которых проверяется владение видо-временными формами глаголов и способами словообразования. Предлагаемый образец карточки экзаменатора-собеседника, задания для экзаменуемого и примерный вариант монологического высказывания могут помочь на уроке при отработке навыков монологической речи и работе над тематической лексикой и грамматикой.
Методическая разработка предназначена для использования на среднем и старшем этапах изучения английского языка в зависимости от цели и задач урока, уровня подготовки и индивидуально-психологических особенностей обучающихся.
Разработка составлена с учётом современных требований Стандарта и Примерных Программ по английскому языку. Задания соответствуют формату Единого Государственного Экзамена.
Муниципальное образовательное учреждение
« Средняя общеобразовательная школа № 2 »
Урок английского языка
My Favourite Holiday
по учебнику « New Millennium English»
учитель английского языка
Учитель: Размахнина О.Б., МОУ СОШ № 2 г. Моршанск
Тема урока: «Мой любимый праздник»
Тип урока: комбинированный
- расширение и углубление знаний обучающихся по теме « Праздники»
- формирование коммуникативной и социокультурной компетенции обучающихся
- воспитание любви к родному краю, его историческому прошлому и традициям
- повышение самооценки обучающихся
- развитие критического мышления, познавательной активности
- пополнить лексический запас по теме «Праздники»
- стимулировать употребление лексико-грамматических единиц в устной и письменной речи
- научить обучающихся извлекать информацию из текста в том объёме, который необходим для решения конкретной речевой задачи, используя определённые технологии чтения
Раздаточные дидактические материалы
Учебник Гроза О.Л. и др. Английский язык нового тысячелетия/New Millennium English для 10 кл. общеобраз.учрежд.- Обнинск: Титул, 2009
компьютер, проектор, доска
T: Here are some photos from my family album. Can you give them a title?
T.: During our lesson you will expand your knowledge about holidays and I hope you'll enjoy it.
Reading and Listening
T: Read, listen and guess what holidays this information is about. Match the holiday and the picture if there is any on the screen.
L - Cl
1. In America and Great Britain this holiday is before New Year and in Russia it is after the New Year's Day.(Christmas)
2. Presents are supposed to be sent by Father Frost and Snow Maiden. (New Year)
3. This religious holiday is held on the first full moon between March 22 and April 25. (Easter)
4. It is one of the most memorable dates when our country won the war against the fascist Germany. (Victory Day)
5. Pancakes are traditionally cooked. (Shrovetide)
6. It is a special day for schoolchildren and their teachers. (the Day of Knowledge)
7. Popular decorations are ghosts, witches, skeletons and black cats. (Halloween)
8. It is one of the local festivals. (City Day)
9. On this day people play tricks on their families and friends. (April, 1)
10. Women are given flowers and presents. (Women's Day)
11. We congratulate our men and boys. (February,, 23)
12. They are the three main official holidays in Russia. (The day of nation Unity, the Day of Russia, Constitution Day)
T: Almost every festival has its symbol. Do you agree? What holiday symbols can you see on the screen? What other holiday symbols do you know?
Ll: (Possible answers)
T: Look at the screen once again. Which picture does not match? Why?
Ll: Halloween. It's not a Russian holiday.
T: We are going to speak about holidays in our country. How do Russian people celebrate their holidays?
What associations have you got when you hear the words holiday activities?
Everybody likes holidays. It is interesting to know what the most popular holidays in the class are. Ask your classmates and tell about their favourute holidays.
T: We are going to read the text about my favourite holiday. What holiday, do you think, I like more, a Russian or a foreign one?
Read and check your guesses.
T: Read the text once again and answer the questions:
What is the name of the festival?
When is it celebrated?
What do people usually do on this day?
Why do children enjoy the holiday?
1. Read the text and mark the following sentences as true or false
It is a well-known holiday.
Yarilky is celebrated in August.
The author's mother doesn't enjoy the holiday.
2. Complete the sentences
1. Yarilky is sometimes called
b) Mermaids' holiday
2. During Yarilky children
a) swim in the river
b) drink much water
c) pour water over people
3. On this day children carry
a) bottles full of water
b) bottles of Coke
c) flags and balloons
3. Match two parts of the sentence
1. This festival a) do not get offended.
2. You run the risk b) has no fixed date.
3. The weather is usually c) of having a cold shower.
4. Most people d) very hot on this day.
Post Reading activity
T: One sentence from the text seems debatable. Can you find it?
Ll: (Possible answers)
Mind some information about the origin of the holiday. Look at the screen.
1. Fill in the gaps.
2. Match the name and the description of the holiday.
3. Fill in the table.
T: Have you ever participated in any water holidays? Would you like to? What holidays would you organize? Work in groups. Make a poster. Speak about your water holiday using the table as a plan.
LL. represent their posters.
Make the advertisement of your new local holiday to attract as many tourists as possible.
My Favourite Holiday
Many youngsters in Morshansk add one more holiday to famous Russian holidays. Have you ever heard about a holiday called Yarilky? Some people call it Igrishcha or Mermaids' Holiday. It dates back to the pagan times praying for rain in dry weather. This holiday has no fixed date. It comes on Monday a week after Trinity. It is usually very hot on this day. The main activity of the holiday is to pour water over other people.
Early in the morning children gather out-of-doors with bottles and buckets full of water. They pour water over each other and have fun. But there is one thing my mother doesn't like - you risk taking a cold shower passing by a group of teenagers.They even pour water on cars and buses. Most peopledo not get offended. We are really lucky to have such a wonderful and exciting holiday in Morshansk.
The week after Trinity was__________ Mermaids' Week. People believed mermaids went out of rivers and ponds and sat on tree branches. Peasants were afraid to go to the forest until the week was ___________ and some traditions were __________.
observed over called
Long ago people worshiped______ gods. Yarilo was an____name of the Sun. The power of the Sun was always connected with the strength of water.
The festival glorified a _____________ power of Nature.
ancient life-giving pagan
In some provinces people had a special _________ on that day. They cooked tasty _________ and put on their best clothes, danced, sang songs, played games, poured themselves with water and had _______ .
meal occasion fun
What are the monuments in the pictures? What are they for?
In pairs, try to match the following information. Then, read and check your answers.
a) 9th May 1945
b) 4 years
c) 22nd June 1941
d) 900 days
1. the siege of Leningrad
2. the beginning of the war
3. the Great Patriotic War
4. the end of the war
The greatest national holiday in Russia is Victory Day - 9th May. The Great Patriotic War ended on this day in 1945. On that day, we celebrate the end of the war and remember the people who died for Russia.
The war lasted for four years. Soldiers fought all over the country: from the White Sea in the north to the Black Sea in the south. The Brest Fortress was the first to fight the Nazis on 22nd June 1941. The Germans attacked Moscow many times. Leningrad - now St Petersburg - was under siege for 900 days. The battle of Stalingrad was one of the most important battles in this war.
There are a lot of monuments to the heroes of this war everywhere in Russia. The best known are Mamayev Hill, Piskarev Cemetry and the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier where an eternal flame burns.
Every year on 9th May, veterans who fought in the war take part in a parade. People give them flowers and then they all go to the monuments. There is a minute's silence all over the country at 7 pm. This is when people pay tribute to those who died in this war. Victory Day is a holiday that unites all Russian people.
Replace the pronouns in bold with the correct word(s) from the text. Then, explain the words in bold.
They fought all over Russia.
It was the first city to take part in the war.
It is now called St Petersburg.
There are many monuments for them.
People see them in parades.
Imagine you are a TV reporter talking live to the viewers. Describe the parade.
How do you celebrate Victory Day in your family / at your school? What do people in your region do on that day?
The Old New Year
Read the title. How do you think the people in the pictures are related to it? Read and check.
A calendar year must have an exact number of days - usually 365. A solar year (the time it takes the Earth to go once around the Sun) is actually 365.242 199 days. Because of this small difference, after only four years, the calendar is almost a day ahead of the solar year. To stop this, some years are 'leap years', with an extra day at the end of February.
The Roman emperor Julius Caesar introduced the Julian calendar in 45 BC. This has 365 days, but every fourth year is a leap year of 366 days. The Julian calendar was used in many parts of the world for more than 1,500 years. But it is not a perfect calendar because it falls behind the solar year by about one day per century.
In 1582, Pope Gregory XIII introduced the Gregorian calendar. This corrects the problem of the Julian calendar by making most '00' years (1700, 1800, 1900) normal years of 365 days.
Today, most of the world uses the Gregorian calendar, but many countries were slow to replace the 'Old Style' Julian calendar. Russia began to use the 'New Style' calendar on 26th January, 1918. By this time, the Julian calendar was 13 days behind the solar year. To correct this, the date jumped from 31st January 1918 to 14th February.
Because of the 'missing' 13 days, many Russian people feel that the true New Year's Eve is on 13th January. Anyway, no one complains about having an extra holiday, so they celebrate both the Old Style and New Style New Year.
The Russian Orthodox Church still uses the Julian calendar.
Read again and mark the sentences True or False.
A solar year is 365 days.
Leap years have one more day.
In the Julian calendar we 'lose' a day per century.
A few countries use the Gregorian calendar nowadays.
Russian people celebrate New Year's Eve twice every year.
Explain the words in bold.
Which New Year's holiday do you celebrate? Do you get presents for each holiday or just for one?
Tell your partner what you did during last New Year's holidays.
Look at the cards. What is it for? Who is it for?
In pairs, think of three questions about Women's Day. Read the text and check if you can answer them.
This day is a celebration of all women, young and old. Russian mothers, grandmothers, sisters and aunts get flowers and sweets. Men do all the housework and cook. There are special TV and radio programmes about women, too.
March 8th is Women's Day in Russia.For most Russians, this holiday is a symbol of coming spring, of love, and of respect for all women. But how many of us remember the history of this special day?
Most women feel as though they are queens for the day. They wish every day was like this!
In 1910, the German revolutionary Clara Zetkin decided that people should celebrate this day every year and remember all the working women in the world who are fighting for equal rights with men. On 8th March 1913, Russia celebrated its first Women's Day.
Read again and put the paragraphs into the correct order. Then explain the words in bold.
Which is your favourite holiday? Why? How do you celebrate it?
In pairs, draw a card for it.
A Night Full of Magic
Look at the picture? Which festival does it illustrate? What do people do during this festival?
Read and find all the words related to magic. Explain the words in bold.
The feast day of St John the Baptist (24th June) is well known in many European countries, though by different names. As it almost coincided with the summer solstice (22nd June) - the longest day of the year - the Christian Church combined it with agricultural folk rites calling for good harvest, wealth and health. In Orthodox Christian countries, it is celebrated according to the Julian calendar, on 6th July and is called Ivan Kupala, a name which comes from pre-Christian times. According to pagan mythology, Ivan Kupala was a god of water.
The night of Ivan Kupala is full of magic. Russians believe that wicked witches and wizards gather at the Lisiya Mountain in the Ukraine, and that warlocks, mermaids, house, forest and water spirits and werewolves become especially active and dangerous. They believe that only fire and fresh water can protect them from evil spirits and demonic forces. That is why people bathe in a river or a lake and pour water over each other. The morning dew on this day is said to drive away disease and cleanse the face. To collect the magic healing dew, a clean sheet is dragged through the fields in the early morning.
Fire also plays an important role in this holiday. People light big bonfires, sing songs, dance around and jump over the flames. Those who jump the highest are believed to become happy, healthy and powerful. Engaged couples jump over the flames holding hands and if their hands do not unclasp, it is said that they will get married very soon. At sunset, girls make garlands and wreaths from flowers, put lit candles on them and float them down the river. It is a bad omen if the wreath sinks quickly, and the direction in which it floats is said to show the way to the girl's future husband.
On the night of Ivan Kupala, trees, herbs and flowers are said to gain magical power and start moving and talking to each other. In order to obtain a piece of this magic, people gather the herbs, sanctify and dry them and then use them throughout the year for medicinal and magical purposes. There is also a legend which says that a fern flower blossoms exactly at midnight on Ivan Kupala. Whoever finds it, becomes invisible to his enemies and will be able to find all treasures buried in the ground. However, finding the flower is quite a challenge and so far nobody has succeeded. Try your fortune next summer on Ivan Kupala night! May be, you'll be the lucky one!
3. Read and write down the Ivan Kupala activities, legends and beliefs related to:
Match the paragraphs and the headings. There is an extra heading.
Diving into the Mystery of Russian Holidays
a) Russian national character
b) Helpful advice
c) Important dates
d) Holiday preferences
e) Holiday variety
1. The Russian love for holidays is known all over the world. We adore holidays, indeed. But who does not? Of course, every holiday is good in its own way and we are not indifferent to their meaning and ritual side. Yet, it is not rare in this country that holidays vary both their attributes and meaning. Russian holidays present a mixture of new and old, religious and secular, professional and private. National holidays reflect multicolored Russian history. Christian traditions were combined with pagan ones and therefore strongly connected to the seasons and agricultural cycle. Church holidays were mixed with those introduced during the communist regime. And we do not mind: every holiday deserves celebration.
2. Like in any other country, holidays are an integral part of the Russian culture. What makes Russia different from other countries though, is that their holidays present a very mixed picture. Official and unofficial, professional and private, old and new holidays coexist more or less successfully in their lives. There are some revived old religious holidays and preserved though renamed Soviet ones. Some holidays are purely official and have zero meaning to Russians. They fall under the category of nice-to-have-an-extra-day-off holidays. Others, on the other hand, have great emotional gravity to them. Needless to say, knowing Russian holiday tradition is the key to understanding both its complex culture and its people.
3. Russian society is non-individualistic and usually everyone has really big circle of family and friends. We are very communicative folk. There is no our country without holidays in Russia (you can see the list of them below) - we have a lot of them, love them and enjoy of celebrating every one of them very much! Yes, Russian people love to celebrate. We celebrate everything, from birthdays, weddings to car purchase. Sometimes the celebration reason looks ridiculous. But this is the way it is. We also like to go visit our friends and family and having guests as well. Hospitality is a longstanding tradition in Russian culture. In Russian society it is not thought impolite to drop in unannounced at a neighbor's or friend's home, even a suppertime - the host can then take delight in begging one to stay and share the evening meal. The presence of a guest is still considered an honor: it is a host who should thank his guests for coming, not other way around!
4. When a national holiday falls on a weekend day people enjoy additional day-off because it is considered to be unfair to miss either a holiday or a weekend. Note that it is common for Russian government to switch weekend days around an official holiday so that people get 3 days off in a row. For example, if May 1 falls on Tuesday, they will declare the Saturday previous to May 1 a working day, while Monday will be a day off. So, people would have Sunday, Monday and Tuesday off. The government announces the schedule for the upcoming holiday a few weeks in advance. If you happen to visit Russia during the holidays, especially New Year's, keep in mind that all government offices may be closed earlier before and opened later after the official days off. If you need to renew your visa or do any other official business, prepare in advance. On the other hand, during New Year holiday season you will see more friendly and smiling faces; you will see the softer and more beautiful side of Russian culture.
Match the paragraphs and the headings. There is an extra heading.
1. Historical background
2. The newest official holiday
5. Main activities
a) President Vladimir Putin reestablished the holiday in order to replace the commemoration of the October Revolution, known as The Day of Great October Socialist Revolution during Soviet period and as The Day of Accord and Conciliation in post-Soviet times, which formally took place on November 7. His decision angered some sections of the public, particularly the Communist Party, who pressed on with celebrations on Nov. 7. Putin's predecessor, Boris Yeltsin took a limited action of changing the name of the holiday; by completely removing it, Putin has sparked a controversy that continues today.
b) According to a recent poll (2007), only 23 percent of Russians know the name of the holiday, up from 8 percent in 2005. 22 percent identified the holiday as the Day of Accord and Reconciliation, the name of the Nov. 7 holiday in the 1990s. Only 4 percent knew that the holiday commemorates the liberation of Moscow from Polish invaders, down from 5 percent in 2005.
c) Unity Day, the Day of People's Unity (or National Unity Day) was celebrated in Russian Empire until 1917 and in Russia from 2005. Held on November 4 (October 22, Old Style), it commemorates the popular uprising which expelled the Polish-Lithuanian occupation force from Moscow in November 1612, and more generally the end of the Time of Troubles and foreign intervention in Russia in the Polish-Muscovite War (1605-1618). Its name alludes to the idea that all the classes of Russian society willingly united to preserve Russian statehood when its demise seemed inevitable, even though there was neither Tsar nor Patriarch to guide them. In 1613 tsar Mikhail Romanov instituted a holiday named Day of Moscow's Liberation from Polish Invaders.The holiday, held in October, was abandoned in 1917. November 4 is also the feast day for Our Lady of Kazan, the holy icon which the Russian Orthodox Church probably venerates most.
d) There have been concerns about the manifestations of ultranationalism during the celebrations of the National Unity Day. In November 2005 and 2006, rallies were held in Moscow at which demonstrators shouted "Russia for Russians!", made neo-Nazi salutes, and held placards with swastikas, anti-semitic and anti-immigration slogans. While President Putin and the mayor of Moscow, Yuri Luzhkov, have condemned such slogans and sentiments, xenophobic rhetoric is increasingly being adopted and manipulated by some politicians and officials.
Match the headings and the paragraphs. There is an extra heading.
A. General information E. Historical background
B. Symbols C. Public life F. Main activities G. Traditional meal
D. Opposite opinion
1. Russia Day is a national holiday in the Russian Federation. Most banks, public offices and schools are closed on June 12. If the day falls on a weekend, the public holiday shifts to the following Monday. Public transport schedules may vary depending on events taking place in each city on June 12.
2. On June 12, 1990 Soviet leaders signed a declaration of Russia's state sovereignty. That document symbolized the beginning of democratic reforms in Russia. It also marked one of the first steps to the official dissolution of the Soviet Union. June 12 became a public holiday in 1994, but many people either did not understand its meaning or refused to celebrate it. To promote June 12 as a patriotic holiday, Russia's first president Boris Yeltsin suggested renaming it to Russia Day in 1997 (the holiday's original name was the Day of Signing the Declaration of State Sovereignty). The renaming took place in 2002 when the Russian Parliament adopted a new version of Russia's Labor Code.
3. Yet many other people see Russia Day as nothing more than a day off. Many Russians refused to celebrate this holiday when it was introduced in 1994. For them it was the day when their leaders agreed to the dissolution of the Soviet Union. The demise of the Soviet Union led to unemployment and poverty of many Russians. People who oppose celebrating June 12 spend time in their countryside houses (dachas) or do other outdoor activities.
4. The Russian flag is often seen on Russia Day. The Russian flag and a two-headed eagle, the state symbols of the Russian Federation, are the most common symbols of Russia Day.
5. Russia Day, annually celebrated on June 12, marks the beginning of democratic reforms in Russia and is one of the newest holidays in the Russian Federation.
6. Russia Day is an occasion for many Russians to demonstrate national pride. Some people celebrate Russia's economic and social achievements and pay tribute to famous Russians on June 12. People may attend concerts and fireworks that take place in many cities throughout the country. Prominent Russian writers, scientists and humanitarian workers receive a National Award from the Russian president on this day.
Прочитайте текст и заполните пропуски 1-6 частями предложений, обозначенными буквами A - G. Одна из частей в списке A - G лишняя. Перенесите ответы в таблицу.
Radio Day, Communications Workers' Day or Radio and Television Day is a commemoration of the development of radio in Russia. It takes place on May 7, the day in 1895 1_____. In 1895, Popov gave the first public demonstration of radio 2__________, using Sir Oliver Lodge's coherer 3_______ .
Popov has generally been recognized in Eastern Europe 4________, in contrast to the West's recognition of Tesla and, historically, Marconi. Popov's work on the emission and reception of signals by means of electromagnetic oscillations built upon Tesla's accomplishments demonstrated in 1893. Marconi received a patent for radio in 1896, but his apparatus was based on various earlier techniques of other researchers (primarily Tesla) and resembled instruments 5_______. Radio Day was first observed in the Soviet Union in 1945, 6___________, and some four decades after his death. Radio Day is officially marked in Russia and Bulgaria.
A. invented by A. Popov
B. as an "inventor of radio"
C. demonstrated by others (including Popov)
D. as a lightning detector
E. on the 50th anniversary of Popov's experiment
F. as a tool before the Russian Physical and Chemical Society in St. Petersburg
G. on which Alexander Popov successfully demonstrated his invention
Прочитайте приведённый ниже текст. Преобразуйте, если необходимо, слова, напечатанные заглавными буквами в конце строк так, чтобы они грамматически соответствовали содержанию текста. Заполните пропуски полученными словами.
Cosmonautics Day is a holiday celebrated (mainly in Russia)
every April 12 to commemorate the first manned earth orbit.
It 1_______________ in the Soviet Union on April 9, 1962. ESTABLISH
In modern Russia, it 2 ______________ in honour of the first CELEBRATE
manned space flight made on April 12, 1961 by 27-year old
Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin, who 3 ______ one complete MAKE
orbit around the Earth (lasting 1 hour 48 minutes) aboard the
spacecraft Vostok 1.
It 4______ an instant and overwhelming success for the Soviet BE
space program, and resonated loudly all over the globe.
Gagarin immediately 5 ________not just a national hero of the BECOME
Soviet Union, but a global hero too. Major newspapers all
around the globe published his biography and details of his
flight. Moscow (and other large cities in USSR) held parades,
the scale of which were second only to WWII Victory Parades.
Gagarin was escorted in a long motorcade of high-ranking
officials through the streets of Moscow to the Kremlin where,
in a lavish ceremony, he 6 _____________the highest Soviet AWARD
honour, the title of Hero of the Soviet Union.
On Cosmonautics Day, the commemoration ceremony 7 _______ START
in the city of Korolyov, near Gagarin's statue. Participants then
proceed under police escort to Red Square for a visit to Gagarin's
grave in the Kremlin Wall Necropolis, and continue to Cosmonauts
Alley, near the Monument to the Conquerors of Space. Finally, the
festivities are concluded with a visit to the Novodevichy Cemetery.
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Knowledge Day, often simply called 1st of September,
is the day when the school year 1___________ starts in TRADITION
Russia and many other former Soviet republics. This
day also marks the end of summer and the beginning
of autumn. It has special 2___________for the incoming SIGNIFICANT
class of first graders who come to school for the first
time and often participate in a celebratory 3________on ASSEMBLE
this date. The day also involves the First Bell where
a first grade girl is lifted on the shoulders of a 12th
grade male pupil, and paraded around, 4__________ the RING
first bell of the school year. Students in other grades
may begin studies on September 1st or a few days
5____________, usually without any special festivities. LATE
September 1st has an iconic 6____________status in the CULTURE
Russian-speaking world and is immediately recognized
there primarily in 7_____________with beginning of the CONNECT
school year. For instance, a well-known slogan is 1st of
September is the red day in the calendar ("red" meaning
Fill in the table
This merry summer holiday dates back to the pagan festival. The main activities are making wreaths and decorating the house with flowers and green tree branches. A birch-tree is usually put in the middle of the church. It is celebrated on the fiftieth day after Easter.
Palm or willow branches are associated with this festival as symbols of Christ the Saviour. It takes place a week before Easter. People say "Palm Sunday is white, Easter Sunday is red". And they add, "There is no spring without a willow-tree".
The 19th of January is a religious holiday. The main event of it is water sanctifying. Epiphany water is believed to protect against many diseases. The ice-hole is made in the form of a cross. In spite of famous severe frosts some people bathe in the river.
Ilia the Prophet's Day
The 2nd of August has traditionally been the last day for swimming in the river. Water is considered to become colder since that day. It often rains. Thunderstorms and lightning are thought to be sent by Ilia, the Prophet, riding in the sky.
It is one of the most ceremonial days in honour of the Virgin Mother. Russian people have always felt great respect for the occasion and say that on this day a bird doesn't make its nest and a maid doesn't braid her hair. There's been an old tradition to free birds on the 7th of April.
Name Russian military glory days.
Find your parents' professional holidays.
Speak about the holiday next to your birthday.
Russian holidays official list
January 1-5 (days off) - New Year holidays
January 7 (day off) - Christmas
January 12 - Public prosecutor office specialists day (professional holiday)
January 13 - The day of Russian press (professional holiday)
January 21 - The day of engineer troops (memorable day)
January 25 - The day of Russian students also known as Tatiana Day (memorable date)
January 27 - The day of Leningrad city blockade reversal (military glory day)
February 2 - The day of Stalingrad battle victory (military glory day)
February 8 - The day of Russian science (professional holiday)
February 10 - The day of diplomatic officials (professional day)
February 23 (day off) - The day of native land defender (state holiday)
March 8 (day off) - International day of women (state holiday)
Second Sunday of March - The day of land surveying and cartography specialist (professional holiday)
March 11 - The day of drugs control specialists (professional holiday)
Third Sunday of March - The day of salesclerks, housing and communal services specialists (professional day)
March 19 - The day of submariners (professional holiday)
March 25 - The day of workers in the arts and culture
March 27 - The day of home troops of Ministry of Home Affairs (professional holiday)
March 29 - The day of law service specialist of Russian army
April 1 - April fool day (unofficial holiday)
April 2 - The day of nations unity
April 8 - The day of military commissariats workers (professional holiday)
First Sunday of April - The day of geologist (professional holiday)
April 12 - The day of space travel science (memorable date)
Second Sunday of April - The day of anti-aircraft defense troops (memorable day)
April 15 - The day of radio-electronic fight troops (professional holiday)
April 18 - The day of Alexander Nevsky troops victory over German knights on Chudskoye lake of 1242 (military glory day)
April 26 - The memory day of radioactive catastrophes and disasters victims (memorable day)
April 30 - The day of firemen (professional holiday)
May 1 (day off) - The holiday of Spring and Labor
May 7 - The day of radio and telecoms workers (professional holiday)
May 9 (day off) - The Victory Day (military glory day)
Last Sunday of May - The day of chemist (professional holiday)
May 24 - The day of Slavic written language and culture
May 25 - The day of philologist (professional holiday)
May 26 - The day of Russian entrepreneurship (professional holiday)
May 27 - The day of Russian libraries (professional holiday)
May 28 - The day of border guards (professional holiday)
May 31 - The day of Russian lawyers (professional holiday)
June 1 - International Children's Day
June 5 - The day of ecologists and environmentalists (professional holiday)
June 6 - The day of Pushkin
June 8 - The day of social workers
June 12 (day off) - The day of Russia (the holiday is commemorating the June 12, 1990 when the declaration of sovereignty of Russia was adopted)
Second Sunday of June - The day of textile and light industry workers (professional holiday)
June 14 - The day of migratory service workers (professional holiday)
Third Sunday of June - The day of medical specialists (professional holiday)
Last Saturday of June - The day of inventor (professional holiday)
June 22 - The day of memory and sorrow (memorable date)
June 27 - The day of young people
June 29 - The day of partisans (memorable date)
July 3 - The day of traffic policemen (professional holiday)
First Sunday of July - The day of sea and river fleets workers (professional holiday)
July 10 - The day of Poltava victory of 1709 (military glory day)
Second Sunday of July - The day of fisherman and Russian postal service (professional holiday)
Third Sunday of July - The day of metallurgist (professional day)
Last Sunday of July - The day of Russian Navy (memorable day)
August 1 - The day of home front workers (memorable day)
August 2 - The day of airborne troops (memorable day)
First Sunday of August - The day of railroader (professional day)
August 6 - The day of railroad troops (memorable day)
August 9 - The day of first victory of Russian fleet over Sweden fleet of 1714 (military glory day)
August 12 - The day of sky forces (memorable day)
Second Saturday of August - The day of athletes (professional holiday)
Second Sunday of August - The day of builder (professional holiday)
Third Sunday of August - The day of Russian air freight (professional holiday)
August 22 - The day of Russian state flag
August 23 - The day of Kursk battle victory (military glory day)
Last Sunday of August - The day of miner (professional holiday)
August 27 - The day of cinema (professional holiday)
September 1 - The day of knowledge
September 2 - The day of Russian guard (memorable day)
September 3 - The day of solidarity in terrorism fighting (memorable date)
September 4 - The day of nuclear weapons specialist (professional holiday)
First Sunday of September - The day of oil and gas industries workers (professional holiday)
September 8 - The day of Borodino battle victory (military glory day)
September 11 - The day of Russian fleet victory over Turkish fleet of 1812 (military glory day)
September 13 (September 12 in leap year - 256th day of the year) - The day of programmer (professional holiday)
Second Sunday of September - The day of tank crew member (professional holiday)
September 21 - The day of Kulikovskaya battle victory of 1380 (military glory day)
Third Sunday of September - The day of wood workers (professional holiday)
September 24 - The day of system analyst (professional holiday)
September 28 - The day of nuclear industry workers (professional holiday)
Last Sunday of September - The day of machines builders (professional holiday)
October 1 - The day of elderly people; The day of land forces (memorable day)
October 4 - The day of outer space forces (memorable day)
October 5 - The day of teachers (professional holiday)
Second Sunday of October - The day of agriculture and processing industry workers (professional holiday)
October 20 - The day of military signaler (professional holiday)
Third Sunday of October - The day of roads system workers (professional holiday)
October 24 - The day of special mission units (memorable day)
October 25 - The day of Russian customs officer (professional holiday)
Last Sunday of October - The day of automobile transport workers (professional holiday)
October 29 - The day of non-departmental guard of Ministry of Home Affairs (professional holiday)
October 30 - The memory day of political repressions victims
November 4 (day off) - The day of nation unity (military glory day)
November 5 - The day of military scout (professional holiday)
November 7 - The day of harmony and conciliation; the day of October revolution of 1917 (memorable day)
November 10 - The day of Russian police (professional holiday)
November 13 - The day of radioactive, chemical and biological defense troops (memorable day)
November 19 - The day of rocket forces and artillery (memorable day)
November 21 - The day of Russian Tax Inspection workers (professional holiday)
Last Sunday of November - The day of Mother
December 1 - The day of Russian fleet victory over Turkish fleet of 1853 (military glory day)
December 3 - The day of jurist (professional holiday)
December 5 - The day of counteroffensive launch in Moscow battle of 1941 (military glory day)
December 9 - The day of native land heroes (memorable date)
December 12 - The day of Russian Constitution (memorable date)
December 17 - The day of Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles forces (memorable date)
December 20 - The day of national security service workers (professional holiday)
Third Sunday of December - The day of power engineering specialist (professional holiday)
December 24 - The day of Izmail fortress capture of 1790 (military glory day)
December 27 - The day of lifesaver (professional holiday)
Russians usually "don't look a gift horse in the mouth", but, in fact, there are some traditional gifts.
Match the holiday and the corresponding gift ideas
1. New Year - January 1: New Year's Day is one the most favorite holidays in Russia. Both grown-ups and children are happy on this day. In the Eve of this holiday or just on this very day everybody give presents to each other, have fun, make fireworks, decorate pine and fur-trees, cook delicious things and lay the holiday table. The unchangeable participants of this holiday are Father Frost and his granddaughter "Snegurochka" (a snow girl). The holiday lasts till next morning. For the first time this holiday was announced by Peter the Great, order dated by January 20, 1700. This order gave the detailed instructions how to celebrate New Year's Day.
2. Orthodox Christmas - January 7: This period from 7th till 19th of January is the best period for telling fortunes, as it is the Saint Christmas week, when people have fun, wear fancy-dresses and walk from one home to another asking for favour. In the night of the 7th of January (according to the orthodox calendar) is Christmas. During Christmas holidays people try to be better; it is the time when Christian values take peculiar importance, it is time for good deeds. Christmas is the holiday of waiting for miracles. That's why both grown-ups and children are waiting for Christmas with such impatience and even though miracle doesn't take place the holiday is very nice with its unique mixture of folk and Christian customs and tradition.
3. Holiday of lovers - St. Valentine's Day - February 14: Christian martyr Valentine was condemned to the capital punishment by Roman pagans but even in such cruel conditions he didn't stop thinking of his lover-the jailer's daughter. He sent her a message full of love and tenderness. This holiday, inherited from the Western culture, is now very popular in Russia.
4. Men's Day (formerly known as The Army Day) - February 23: This holiday is celebrated on the 23rd of February. It is our tribute of respect to all the generations of Russian soldiers from the ancient times till nowadays. On this day all men and boys receive congratulations and presents and the military men greet each other. Women have a happy opportunity to say the warmest and the sweetest words to their lovers and to please them with signs of attention.
5. Women's Day - March 8: Russian women adore this holiday, when attention and care of men is guaranteed. Particular attention is paid to women inside their families. Russian women hardly ever recollect that this holiday originated as a day of rebellion of women struggling to equal their rights with the men's ones. In many countries it is the time for the feminists' rallies and the day of the struggle against the opposite sex. In Russia, on the contrary, it is a day of affection and concord between the sexes. In a way, it is similar to such holidays as Valentine's Day and Mother's Day. It is a lovely holiday celebrating the beauty of women blossoming and nature awaking in spring.
6. Orthodox Easter - two weeks after Catholic Easter: It is the main Christian holiday established in honor to the Resurrection of Jesus Christ, the highest celebration of the Orthodox Church. At midnight the church service starts. It is a good time for visiting friends and relatives. People greet each other with words "Christ's risen" and "He's risen indeed" The date of Easter is usually determined by the church calendar and calculated according to special tables.
7. Victory Day - May 9: It is a very significant nationwide holiday of the victory of the Soviet people over fascist Germany in the Great Patriotic War. All people remember soldiers who rescued the world from fascism. In the course of time the celebrating ceremonies of the Victory Day have somewhat changed: the military parades, which were held annually before, are nowadays arranged only in the good round figure years. Still, the holiday keeps up its meaning, commemorating the millions of people fallen in World War II. There are both joyful and mournful moments in this holiday: meetings of veterans, laying wreaths to the monuments of Glory and beds of honour, the minute of silence, and the night salute in celebration of the victory over fascism.
8. Teacher's Day - October 5: The Teacher's Day, which was established in the USSR in 1965 is widely celebrated in Russia; initially it was marked annually on the second Sunday of October. In 1994 the holiday was shifted to the 5th of October and since then Russia has celebrated the International Teacher's Day together with other countries. This special day was created to focus the World's attention on the contributions and achievements of teachers as well as their concerns and priorities.
9. Birthdays are very important for many Russians, not just for kids, but also for adults. People organize Birthday party where they get together with friends and relatives. In addition to Birthday traditions, many Russians also celebrate Name Days (Angel's Days).
10. Family gatherings take place on different occasions: from birthdays, weddings to car purchase. Sometimes the celebration reason looks ridiculous. Russians also like to go visit their friends and family and having guests as well.
a) Traditional chocolates and roses would be just right for this holiday. Remember however, that 11 roses would substitute the traditional dozen roses. The odd number of items should be given in any occasion, except for funerals. This rule does not apply to mixed bouquets and arrangements. Another unique idea would be to send the Message in the Bottle, the Love Letter of all times.
b) Calla lilies and gift baskets are good selections for this holiday. Everybody is expected to give and get painted eggs. Children are happy to get chocolate eggs.
c) High quality Armenian brandy or traditional Russian vodka would please any man on this day. Lego toys, key rings or CDs would be great presents for boys.
d) Christmas presents are not as common in Russia as they are in Western culture however poinsettia plant and chocolates would be a great choice for someone in Russia.
e) Carnations are commonly given flowers on this holiday, but any spring flowers, like tulips or daffodils would make a great bouquet.
f) The most popular gift for it is the Cake. There is variety of high quality cakes available in Russia today.
g) Every guest has to bring some gift of reasonable value. Some people may send gifts or flowers in advance, if they can not attend the party.
h) Unlike Valentine's Day, flower giving on this day is common not only for lovers, but for friends, co-workers and business partners. It is also good to know that flowers carry deep meanings. A single red rose points to the loving heart. Tulips intend sympathy, while yellow tulips reveal a hidden love. An orchid praises unique beauty and a chrysanthemum, if it's yellow, speaks of undying youth and health. A cactus grants happiness and a long life.
i) For many students and their parents it is common to give flower bouquets and chocolates to teachers on this holiday as a special appreciation for the hard work they do. Teachers' salary in Russia is not very high and any gift would bring the happiness to a teacher.
j) The best gifts for the holiday are: Champagne - the traditional party drink, and gift sets which are usually placed under the Pine Tree (Russian version of Christmas tree).
Методические рекомендации по подготовке к ЕГЭ
( Раздел ГОВОРЕНИЕ )
Задание № 1 Монологическое высказывание
Задания для экзаменуемого
Task 1 (3 - 3.5 minutes)
Give a 2-minute talk on holidays. Remember to say:
∙ what holidays are common for many countries
∙ if it is important to celebrate traditional holidays, why/ why not
∙ what your favourite holiday is, why
∙ how you celebrate your favourite holiday
You will have to talk for 1, 5 - 2 minutes. The examiner will listen until you have finished. Then she/he will ask you some questions.
Let the student talk for 1.5 - 2 minutes.
Ask only those questions which the student has not covered while giving the talk.
1. What holidays are common for many countries?
2. Is it important to celebrate traditional holidays? Why/ why not ?
3. What is your favourite holiday? Why?
4. How do you celebrate it?
All of these ideas must be covered.
Finally, you must ask each student the following question:`
What professional holidays are celebrated in Russia?
Возможный вариант тематического монологического высказывания
Every country has its own national holidays, but there are holidays that are
common for many countries. People all over the world celebrate New Year's Day, Christmas and Easter. Yet, these holidays are different in different countries.
For example, in Europe Christmas is celebrated on the 25th of December whereas in Russia this holiday is marked on the 7th of January.
Moreover, in the West Christmas is the most popular holiday while in our country it is a renewed holiday and is not as popular as New Year's Day.
In my opinion, it is very important that traditions survived in our country. It's
great that a lot of people try to follow old traditions and celebrate traditional
Russian holidays. I think traditions are a way of defining who people are.
I am very proud of Russia as a country of great traditions. For example, many
people mark the end of winter and the beginning of spring by burning straw
scarecrows of winter on bonfires. This holiday is called Shrovetide, people cook
and eat pancakes and have fun.
Personally I enjoy celebrating holidays. I think it's a good way to bring the family together. Besides, it is a good chance to meet all your friends and relatives. My favourite holiday is, of course, New Year, because I always get a lot of presents and I like the atmosphere of this holiday.
Traditionally, on the 31st of December we decorate a fir-tree and put presents
under it. The family meal is a central part of our celebration. We cook a lot of traditional Russian dishes: Russian salad, herring in a "fur muff", meat in aspic, etc. When the Kremlin clock strikes twelve, we wish each other "Happy New Year". It's a great time of the year.
To sum up, I think that holidays are a part of our culture and we should try to
keep up these traditions.
There are some professional holidays in Russia, for example, Farmers' Day,
Miners' Day, etc.
I think, the most important one is Teachers' Day, when students praise their
teachers by performing concerts and giving teachers flowers.
Край родной Тамбовский. Разработки уроков по региональному социокультурному компоненту. - изд-во ТОИПКРО, 2002.
Click on Russia.Culture Clips / edited by V. Evans, O. Afanasyeva,
I. Mikheeva, - Express Publishing - Centercom, 2003, 2004.
The Russian Traditions: A Guide for Foreigners. - Nizhny Novgorod: KiTizdat, 1996.