Учебное пособие по английскому языку
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«ОРЛОВСКИЙ ТЕХНИЧЕСКИЙ КОЛЛЕДЖ»
english for engineers
по английскому языку
для студентов 4 курса
Lesson 1 4
Text A. The international combustion Engine. 4
Text B. The Basic Systems of the Internal combustion Engine 9
Text C. Engine Servicing 13
Lesson 2 20
Text A. Modern Tractors 20
Text B. Constructional Features of Modern Tractors 25
Text C. Diagnostic Procedures 27
THE INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE.
It is known1 that for a long time scientists were looking for ways2 to convert fuel directly into the power. As a result3 they invented the internal combustion engine in which the process of fuel combustion takes place. The fuel burns and provides the makes4 an automobile move.
The fuel is stored in a tank connected to the carburettor by a small diameter pipe. The carburettor is a device in which the fuel is mixed with air in the correct proportions. The carburettor is attached to the inlet pipe through5 which the air-fuel mixture moves into the intake valve of the cylinder. The explosive mixture is compressed by the piston, and then it is ignited by the electric spark in the combustion chamber. Heat and gases are produced during the process of combustion. The gases force the piston down6 and escape throng the exhaust valve. The piston moves up and down in the cylinder. The extreme7 positions of the piston are called the top dead centre (TDC) and the bottom dead centre (BDC). The piston movement from TDC to BDC and from BDC to TDC is called the piston stroke.
There are two basic mechanisms in the international combustion engine. The first one is the crank mechanism that takes the pressure of gases in the cylinder during the fuel combustion and changes the reciprocating motion of the piston into the rotary motion of the crankshaft. The crank mechanism consists of cylinder block, piston and piston rigs, connecting rod, crankshaft and flywheel and crankcase. The piston is connected to the crankshaft by means of8 the connecting rod. On the one end of the crankshaft there is a gear that drives the crankshaft of the engine. The function of the camshaft is to open and close the valves of the cylinder. At the opposite end of the crankshaft there is a flywheel that transmits power to the transmission system of the engine.
The crankshaft is carried9 on the main bearings. The crankcase forms the bottom of the cylinder block. It protects its parts and keeps10 the oil.
The other mechanism of the engine is the gas-distributive mechanism. It consist of a camshaft, a gear drive and valves. The main function of this mechanism is to force the air - fuel mixture into the cylinder and to exhaust the gases when the operating cycle is over.
There are 4 basic system in the internal combustion engine. They are the cooling system, the lubricating system, the fuel system and the electrical system.
1it is known - известно
2way - способ
3as a result - в результате
4makes - заставляет
5through - через
6force down - толкать вниз
7extreme - верхняя и нижняя
8by means of - с помощью
9is carried - (зд.) опирается
10keeps - удерживает
Active Vocabulary to Text A
attach присоединять exhaust выхлоп, выхлопной
bearing подшипник fuel топливо
bottom низ force сила
burn(burnt) гореть force into нагнетать
camshaft распредвал force out выталкивать
change изменять gear шестерня
change into превращать heat нагревать, тепло
combustion сгорание ignite воспламенять
chamber камера inlet впуск, впускной
compress сжимать intake впускной
connect соединять lubricate смазывать
connecting rod шатун move двигаться
convert преобразовывать mix смешивать
cool охлаждать operate работать
crankcase картер piston поршень
crankshaft коленчатый вал power мощность, энергия
cylinder цилиндр spark искра
device приспособление stroke такт, ход
dead centre мертвая точка top верх
drive привод wear(worn) изнашиваться
engine двигатель valve клапан
1.Read and translate the words without a dictionary
Block, carburettor, cycle, cylinder, diameter, gas, type, system, diesel, compression,
2.Teel what parts of speech the following words belong to.
Basic, historic, economic, systematic, cylindrical, special, internal, function, mixture, nature.
3. From nouns from the following verbs by adding the suffixes
a /-tlon, -sion, b/-ment. Translate them Russian.
a/ connect, act, operate, ludricate, ignite, compress, transmit, rotate;
b/ develop, attach, achieve, arrange, move.
4.Add the suffix -ly to the adjectives given below. Translate the derived words.
High, common, heavy, special, direct, correct, central technical, experimental.
5.Give synonyms to the following words. Translate them
Small, great, heavy, intake, burning, to attach, to change into.
6.Group the following words in pairs of antonyms. Translate them
Light, down, to expand, to open, to cool, up, exhaust, bottom, to close, to heat, out, to stop, inlet, top, to compress, into, to move, heavy.
7.Give the degreеss of the following adjectives. Compose 3 sentences with any of them
High, deep, long, hot, cool, good, correct, heavy, common, difficult.
8.Choоse attributes from point B for the nouns from A. Translate and use 3 of them in your own sentences.
Chamber, valve, pump, pipe, mixture, engine, filter, cycle, system, stroke, parts.
Oil, inlet, water, exhaust, combustion, engine, fuel, piston.
9. Read and translate the sentences. Compose 2 sentences of your own using the same pattern.
The greater the compression in the combustion chamber, the higher the temperature in the cylinder.
The smaller the parts of the units, the less the friction in the mechanism.
The heavier the parts of the engine, the more material is used for their production.
The more we study the principles of the engine operation, the better we know them.
10 Fill in the suitable words.
The intemal combustion engine… fuel into power.
The process of … takes place in the cylinder.
The fuel burns and provides the … .
The air - fuel mixture moves through the … pipe to the intake…
The explosive … is compressed by … .
The gases … the piston down.
The electric … ignites the mixture.
The … gases force the … down.
The piston movement from BDC to TDC is called the piston … .
… attaches the piston to the crankshaft.
The function of the … is to close and open the valves.
The … mechanism consists of a cylinder block, piston, connecting rod, crankshaft and crankcase.
13. The … transmits the power to the transmission system.
14. The … protects the engine parts and keeps the oll.
11. Put questions to the underlined words.
The air - fuel mixture moves into the cylinder.
The cylinder has 2 valves.
The parts of the lubricating system are the pump, the filters, and the pipes.
The Scientists invented the diesel engine in 1933.
12.Form Participle I from the following verbs:
To look, to burn, to expand, to change, to provide, to be, to convert, to operate, to move.
Find in the Text Participles I. What are their functions?
Compose 5 sentences using Participles I as attributes.
14. Form Participles II from the following verbs. Explain the different ways of forming Participle II.
To move, to do, to be, to keep, to drive, to convert, to burn, to cool, to take, to make, to see, to wear.
15.Translate the following collocations with Participle II.
The burnt gases, the compressed air, the ignited mixture, the cylinder made of iron, the closed valve, the fuel converted into power, the work done by the piston, the piston forced down by the gases, the connecting attached to the crankshaft.
16. Compare the following pairs of sentences. What are functions of the words with-ed?
This farm produced only farm tractors.
The machines produced by this plant are farm tractors.
The engine used on the tractors is the ICM.
Engineers used the first diesel in 1931.
The electric spark ignited the compressed air-fuel mixture.
The piston compressed the explosive mixture in the cylinder.
The injected fuel was ignited by the very high temperature.
The pump injected the lubricant into the pipe.
17. Find Participles II in the Text and define their functions.
18. Translate the following sentences. Explain the difference. Transform the sentences in the Active Voice into the Passive Voice and vice verca.
As a result they invented the internal combustion engine.
The fuel burns and provides power.
The fuel is stored in a tank.
The fuel tank is connected by a small diameter pipe to the carburettor.
The fuel is mixed with air in the carburettor.
The explosive mixture moves to the inlet pipe.
The camshaft opens and closes the valves.
19. Translate from Russian into English.
Топливо горит в двигателе внутреннего сгорания. 2. Топливо и воздух смешиваются в карбюраторе. 3. Смесь сжимается в цилиндре. 4. Смесь воспламеняется искрой. 5. Коленвал поддерживается коренными подшипниками. 6. Поршень и коленвал соединяются шатуном. 7. Температура в двигателе снижаются с помощью охладительной системы. 8. Топливо преобразуется в мощность в двигателе внутреннего сгорания.
20. Make up sentences using the substitutions table:
There is fuel in the tank
fuel and air in the carburettor
There are electrik spark mixsed in the carburettor
exhaust valve in the combustion chamber
2 extreme position in the engine
connecting rod of the piston
valves which changes the type of motion
coling system in the cylinder
the water jacket
THE BASIC SYSTEM OF THE INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE.
1. COOLING SYSTEM.
As the fuel burns heat is prodused and the temperature in the combustion chamber is very higt. Some 1 of the heat goes into useluf power, some is lost through the exshaust gases and some must be removed by a cooling system. The cooling system of the modern engines is based on the forced circulation mentod. Around the cylinder and the cylinder head there is a water jacket connected to a radiator by two tubes. Between the radiator and the water jacket there is pressure pump used for continuous² circulation of the coolant in the cooling system. A fan behind the radiator removes the heat from the coolant. A thermostat control the flow of the coolant from the radiator to the water jacket and regulates its temperature. The coolant in the water jacket removes heat from the hottest parts of the engine. Temperature for proper³ cooling is about 85Cº. It is necessary to look after the temperature of the coolant .
When the engine is overcooled the required structure of the explosive mixture is upset.
Heat is lost and the efficiency of the engine lowers. The friction is great and the cylinder walls and piston rings are quickly worn.
When the engine is overheated, its parts expand, friction increases and the piston are wedged. The engine operation cycle is broken. The oil vaporises and burns. Both overcooling and overheating cause the damage of the engine.
¹some - некоторая часть
²continuous - постоянный
³proper - нормальный
Active Vocabulary to Text B
useful - полезный control - регулировать
lose/lost/ - терять flow - поток
water jacket - водяная рубашка remove - отводить
efficiency - экономичность expand - расширять
tube - труба, патрубок wedge - заклинивать
cool - охлаждать coolant - охладитель
vaporise - испаряться radiator - радиатор
cause - вызывать thermostat - термостат
break/broke, broken/ - нарушать
1.Answer the questions.
Which devices does the cooling system include?
What is the scheme of the circulation in the cooling system?
What is the of thermostat?
What happens when the engine is overcooled?
How does overheating affect the engine operation?
2. Describe the work of the cooling system.
II. Lubricating system.
To reduce the friction between the working parts that ire never completely smooth¹, and to adsorb some heat one should use different oil lubricants. The most common type of lubrication is the combination of the force feed method² and splash lubrication . Oil is circulated and distributed within the engine by a gear type oil pump.
It maintains the sufficient³ pressure to supply oil in proper quantities to all moving parts. The oil from the oil pan is sucked into the oil passage and delivered to the oil pump. Then it is forced into the oil filters. There it is cleaned from particles and supplied to the main bearing of the crankshaft, to the connecting rod bearings, to the camshaft bearings and to the cylinder block units, valve mechanism and other parts requiring lubrication.
As a result a thin oilfilm is produced on the working surfaces that keeps them apart. In this way friction and wear are the engine parts are cooled, cleaned and washed by the lubricant.
If one lees lubricant that is required, the engine overheats, the bearings way melt and the piston is jammed in the cylinders. With too much lubrication the excess oil leaks into the combustion chamber and burns there. It results in snuff on the chamber walls and on the valves. If the meter shows no oil pressure one must stop the engine at once and check it.
Possible reasons may be the following:
the oil pipe-lines or the pump drive are damaged;
the bearing melt.
Further engine operation is impossible. It needs repairing. When the oil pressure lowers you must check the pipe-lines and oil filters and wash them if it is necessary cool the oil or change it. If the gasket between the oil pan and crankcase or the crankshaft bearing seals are damaged the engine must be repaired at a service station.
If the oil pressure is too high you must:
warm up the engine at low revolutions because the oil may be thickened;
clean the oil pipe-lines7 because they may be obstructed with particles and dirt.
1smoot - гладкий
2forse feed method - метод принудительного питания
3sufficient - значительно высокий
4proper - соответствующий
5keeps apart - удерживает на расстоянии
6excess - избыток
7oil pipe-lines - маслопровод
Active Vocabulary to Text B, II
reduce - снижать overheat - перегревать
friction - трение overcool - переохлаждать
absorb - поглощать melt - плавится
lubricant - смазочное вещество jam - заклинивать
circulate - циркулировать leak - течь
pump - насос snuff - нагар
oil - масло check - проверять
pressure - давление obstruct - забивать
supply - подавать, снабжать damage - повреждать
maintain - обеспечивать gasket - прокладка
suck - всасывать pan - поддон
passage - проход seal - сальник
pipe - труба revolution - оборот
unit - механизм, блок require - нуждаться, требовать
1.Ansver the questions
Why is it necessary to lubricate the engine parts?
What are the most common types of lubrication?
What parts of the engine need lubrication?
How is the lubricant cleaned?
What happens when one uses too much lubrication?
What is the result of poor lubrication?
When is engine operation impossible?
What causes the lowering of oil pressure?
What must be done when the oil pressure is too high?
Name the main devices that from the lubricating system?
3. Describe the principles of engine lubrication.
4. Describe the results of too much engine lubrication.
5. Describe the results of poor engine lubrication.
6. Describe the reasons for the:
adsence of the oil pressure
oil pressure reduction
oil pressure increase.
7. Read the dialogue. Learn it and act out in claas. Practise with your friend ard make up your own dialogue to thepattern.
AT A SERVICE STATION
Mechanic - Good morning, sir. What can I do for you?
Mr. A. - I have run out of petrol.
Mechanic - What kind of petrol would you like?
Mr. A. - Grade 93, 30 litres, please.
Mechanic - All right. Anything else?
Mr. A. - One litre of oil, please.
Mechanic - I'm sorry, sir, we have run out of oil.
Mr. A. - That's a pity. How much shall I pay?
Mechanic - 15 pounds, please.
Mr. A. - By the way, where is the nearest camping site?
Mechanic - Keep straight the road. You can't miss it.
I have run out of petrol - у меня кончился бензин
grade - марка (бензина)
camping site - кемпинг
Keep straight along the road - Езжайте прямо по дороге
Clatters is the crank mechanism are a good signal of abnormal operation. They can of the following faults:
The wear of the crankshaft bearings, the piston pins and their bushings. The worn parts are replaced by new ones.
An increase of the cylinder diameter. In this case new pistons must be set.
The piston wear. To repair one must replace them by new ones.
Compression reduction is the result of the following faults in the crank mechanism:
The wear of the rings, the cylinder walls or the bushes.
The engine should be repaired.
Scratches on the operating surface of the cylinder and the bushes. During maintenance the scratches should be smoothed.
The piston rings sticking in the piston slots. Pour 15 g of kerosene (in a 2:1 mixture) with alcohol into the cylinders and leave for a night. In the morning start the engine to remove the dissolved resins.
The cylinder head fitting is not ting, or the gasket under it is damaged. Replace the damaged gasket with a new one.
To replace the gasket do the following:
remove all the devices from the engine head, let the water out of the cooling system;
unscrew the nuts and the bolts, fastening the head;
remove the head and the gasket;
cover the new gasket with oil before setting it;
serew the bolts.
If there is no compression at all do the following;
unscrew all the plugs except the first cylinder plug;
using the starter lever, rotate the crankshaft until the compression stroke is completed;
screw the plugs according to the engine operation order and rotate the crankshaft again.
Some faults can be detected in gas - distributive mechanism.
The valves do not close tightly because of:
snuff or the cavities on the operating surfaces;
winding of the valve head;
break of the valve spring;
All these faults cause misfiring and compression reduction. It is necessary to repair the engine or to adjust it.
The valves do not open completely because of the clearance in the valve mechanism. That results in a reduction in engine power.
The adjustment of the valve clearances can be performed only by highly qualified personnel.
The wear of the gears, the bearings and the camshaft neck. It causes the clatters during the operation.
Active Vocabulary to Text C
clatter - стук
bushing - вставка
replacc - заменять
gasket - прокладка
screw / unscrew - завинтить / отвинтить
nut - гайка
increase - увеличивать
case - корпус, кожух
reduction - уменьшение
piston ring - кольцо поршня
bush - гильза, втулка
scratch - царапина
smooth - гладкий
stick - заедать
slot - отверстие, щель
pour - наливать
leave - оставлять
adjust - регулировать
dissolved resin - растворенная смола
fasten - крепить
cover - крышка
lever - рычаг
complete - завершать
snuff - нагар
cavity - полость
winding - обмотка
break - поломка
spring - пружина
sag - перекос
misfiring - перебой в работе
clearance - зазор
neck - шейка
1 Answer the questions.
What is a good signal of abnormal operation?
Why is it necessary to replace worn parts?
In what case is it necessary to set new pistons?
What do you do if you have piston wear?
Which mechanism faults cause compression reduction?
Is it necessary to repair the engine if you have the wear of rings, bushes or cylinder walls?
How do you wash the cylinder?
When is the cylinder head fitting not tight?
What do you do to replace the gasket?
What faults can be detected in the gas-distributive mechanism?
2 Express your agreement or disagreement with the following statements.
Clatters in the crank mechanism are a good signal of abnormal operation.
Clatters in the crank mechanism can be the result of a cooling system fault.
Worn piston rings be replaced by new ones.
The clatters are the result of reduction of the cylinder diameter.
Faults in the crank mechanism cause pressure reduction.
If we have wear of the rings, cylinder walls or bushes the engine should be repaired.
If the cylinders have scratches on the operating surface, replace these cylinders.
If you have a damaged gasket, tighten it.
Faults in the gas-distributive mechanism cause compression reduction.
The valve mechanism does not operate when the valves are closed.
3.Name the parts, needed to be repaired or replaced in case of pressure reduction.
1.Wearing of the rings …
2.Scratches on …
3.The piston rings sticking …
4.The unit head fitting …
4.Name the verbs describing operations for gasket replacement.
5.Guess, what is wrong?
It deals with the valves and it causes compression reduction and sometimes
Engine power reduction.
Wear in the gears, bearings and camshaft neck causes ciatters during engine
6.Read the dialogue.
AT THE SERVICE STATION
Customer - Excuse me, Sir.
Attendant - Yes, Sir?
C - Something is wrong with my car.
A - What's wrong?
C - The car has broken down, but you see, I'm just a beginner.
I can't find the problem.
A - Let me have a look at it.
C - Here it is. Each time I start the engine I hear a strange noise.
A - What noise do you hear?
C - I suppose, a metal one and rather loud.
A - Let me listen to it. Aha, you have a compression reduction in
The engine, the gases and fuel steam penetrate into the crank-
case mechanism. And the plugs are contaminated.
C - Can you fix it?
A - Of course, I'll check the rings, the cylinder walls and the
Bushes. And if it is necessary, I'll change the gasket.
C - Are you going to dismount the crank mechanism?
A - Sure! You can get your car tomorrow.
7.Answer the questions.
What is the matter with the car?
Why can't the Customer find the problem?
What does he hear when he starts the engine?
What kind of noise it is?
What has the Attendant found?
What is wrong with the car?
8.Reproduce the dialogue.
9.Compose your own dialogue on the situation:
Two neighbours are in the garage. One of them (Tom) is a beginner, the other one (Jack) is an experienced mechanic. Tom doesn`t know what to do, he is in a mess. The pressure gauge indicates the compression reduction. Jack gives him some pieces of advice.
Words and phrases to be used:
Pressure gauge, to indicate, something has gone wrong to, pressure reduction, a lot depends on the gas-distributive mechanism, valves do not open completely, valves are not closed tightly, snuff on the operating surfaces, the wear of the guide bush, valve sag, a fan-driver, to consult a specialist.
A talk between an Instructor (George) and an Amature-Driver (Nick). The Instructor gives some pieces of advice to beginner: how to detect and correct a fault in a crank mechanism.
Words and phrases to be used:
Abnormal operation, clatter, wear of the shafts, bushes, inserts, increase of the cylinder diameters, to replace, to change, liead fitting is not tight, to control the compression.
Read and translate the texts in written form.
FOUR STROKE CYCLE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE.
Tractors are equipped with internal combustion engines of the diesel type.
Usually they have 4 stroke engines. There are four operations in the the 4
stroke cycle. They are intake, compression, power and exhaust strokes.
Intake stroke. As the crankshaft rotates it moves the piston down the cylinder by means of the connecting rod. The camshaft opens the inlet valve and the piston draws air into the cylinder. The piston reaches the BDC.
Compression stroke. The piston moves up, the inlet valve is closed and the
air is compressed between the piston and the cylinder head. The temperature
and the pressure of the compressed air are very high. The piston reaches the
Power stroke. At this moment the fuel pump forces the fuel through the
injectors into the combustion chamber. The fuel is mixed with the compressed air ignites the air-fuel mixture. It explodes and provides power. During theprocess of combustion the gases force the piston down. It reaches the BDC.
Exaust stroke. The piston moves up, the camshaft opens the exhaust valve,
and the burnt gases escape from the cylinder. The piston reaches the TDC
and a new cycle begins in the cylinder.
THE FUNCTIONS OF THE FUEL AND ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS.
The function of the fuel system is to supply the explosive mixture to the
engine cylinder and remove the combustion products. The basic parts of the
carburettor fuel system are a fuel tank, a carburettor, air filters cleaning the
fuel, inlet and exhaust pipes and a clutch to reduce the speed and noise of
escaping gases. Diesel engines have a high pressure pump forcing the fuel
through the injectors into the combustion chamber.
The electrical system consists of a generator, storage battery, ignition
distributor, coil, spark plugs, wires and switches. The generator is a device converting mechanical energy into electrical current. The current moves from the generator or the storage battery through the coil and is converted into high voltage current.
The distributor connected by wires to the plugs delivers high voltage to the cylinder. An electric spark ignites the explosive mixture. The electric system is used to stark the engine, to feed the front and back lights, radio, windscreen cleaners and defrosters.
CHECKING TECHNICAL STATE OF A CAR.
Checking the technical state of a car is perfe….. visually by means of stethoscope, desselerometer, tape measure and pressure-gauge.
Engine operation is checked at different rotation Krequencics of the crankshaft. The stethoscope is used to check for noises and clatter, visually engine operation is checked for contamination by burnt gases, hermetics of the lubrication system, the supply system, the cooling system, the control devices operation at the different rotation frequencies of the crankshaft, operation of the head-lights, operation of the light switches, the windscreen wippers and the horn.
The next procedure is checking the air pressure in the tyres, and if necessary, the normalization of the pressure. Also , the oil level must be checked. The engine crankcase, gear box and the rear end should be filled up with oil.
When the car is in motion the coupling, the gear box and the main gear are checked. The braking track and slowing down are checked on the dry road with hard covering.
The condition of the pipe - lines, gaskets and sealings of all units and mechanisms of the automobile and its heretics are checked visually. Heating of units is checked by touching.
When the car is in good working order, it should fulfill the following requirements: with loading acceleration the engine must operate without any clatters or pauses. The control devices should indicate the required data, gears must not slip; with continuous gear shifting, there must be no jerks: all the gears must be easy to shift into and out; without any clatters or gnash. The temperature of the units must not exceed 60Cº.
How is converted into engine power?
What are the main engine parts?
What is the engine stroke?
What are the four strokes of internal combustion engine?
Describe each of the engine strokes.
What operation does the piston perform?
What are the functions of the piston rings?
What are the main shaft of the engine?
What is the function of the camshaft?
What does the crankcase serve for?
Why is it necessary to lubricate engine parts?
What are the basic parts of the lubrication system?
What happens when there is too much lubrication on the working surfaces?
What is the result of poor lubrication?
What are the most common types of lubrication?
What parts does the electrical system consist of?
How is the lubricant cleaned?
What parts need lubrication?
What devices from the fuel system?
What is the explosive mixture?
What does the cooling system serves for?
What units does the cooling system include?
What is the scheme of the water circulation in the cooling system?
What is the function of the thermostat?
What is the main difference between the carburettor and diesel engine?
What is the main feature of abnormal operation?
What does the crank mechanism include?
What does the gas - distributive mechanism include?
What do you do if you have worn out crank bearings, shaft, inserts, bushes?
What must be repaired by highly qualified personnel?
What faults cause pressure reduction?
TEXT A. MODERN TRACTORS
TEXT B. CONSTRUCTIONALS FEATURES OF MODERN TRACTORS
TEXT C. TRACTOR DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURES .
GRAMMAR REVISION: MODAL VERBS PASSIVE VOICE.
The tractor is a basic and most useful machine. At present1 the main function of tractors is to provide mobile power for a wide range of agricultural operations and all principal industries.
Tractors may be used for numerous tasks in agriculture such as plowing, planting, cultivating, fertilizing, harvesting as well as2 for transport and to supply power for machinery through the PTO - shaft.
It is impossible to design a tractor performing all these jobs with the same3 efficiency and economy. That's why tractors are provided with certain features. All modern tractors can be classified according to the work they perform. The main groups are agricultural tractors, powerful road transport tractors and special tractors. Tractors may be also classified as wheel tractors and tracklaying tractors. Agricultural tractors include general-purpose or row-crop tractors and garden tractors. General-purpose tractors can pull agricultural mounted or trailed machinery. Various implements are adjusted on the tractor by means of 3-point linkage. Tractors operate with plows, drillers, mowers, harrows, etc. Row-crop tractors include both three wheel and four wheel machines which are able to operate between crops drilled in rows. They are designed for planting cultivating and harvesting corn, cotton and vegetable crops Garden tractors are constructed for work in gardens and orchards. They are lower than the standard four wheel tractors in order to operate closer to trees and vines. And the tyres are made of smaller diameter because orchard soils are light and loose4.
Powerfull transport tractors have higher road speed. They are equipped with load carrying platforms.
Special tractors are equipped with auxiliary5 devices, such as graders6, blades7, scoops8, diggers9, etc.
Tractors can differ in model and in size, but they must have some typical constructional features. They are: a powerful engine, a transmission system, a drawbar, a 3-piont linkage to mound implements, a hydraulic system to lift and lower machinery, a PTO-shaft to drive machines, and pneumatic wheels or tracks.
1at present - в настоящее время
2as well as - а так же
3the same - такой же
4auxiliary - вспомогательный
5loose - рыхлый
6grader - грейдер
7blade - скребок
8scoop - совок
9digger - копалка
Active Vocabulary to Text A
adhesion - сцепление mobile - мобильный
adjust - регулировать mount - навешивать
axle - ось, ведущий мост mow - косить
driving - ведущий mower - косилка
carry - нести, везти orchard - фруктовый сад
certain - определенный, надежный plant - сажать
close - близкий plow - пахать, плуг
corn - хлеба, зерно pneumatic - пневматический
crawler - гусеничный трактор pull - тянуть, тащить
cultivate - обрабатывать range - диапазон
design - конструировать low - ряд
differ - отличаться I TO- shaft- BOM drawbar - сцепное устройство
size - размер drill - сеять
speed - скорость driller - сеялка
supply - снабжать officiency - эффективность
tracks - гусеницы equip - оснащать
tracklayer - гусеничный трактор feature - характеристика
tractor - трактор fertilize - удобрять
general purpose tractor - универсальный трактор
garden - сад, огород, парк hydraulics - гидравлика
harvest - собирать урожай implement - орудие
row - crop - пропашной job - работа
trail - цеплять lift - поднимать
trailer - прицеп linkage - сцепление
vine - лоза load - груз, загружать
wheel - колесо lower - cпускать
front - передний rare/back/ - задний
1.Read the words.
/i: / been, speed, keep, feed, sheep, wheet, between
/i:/ each, easy, wheat, heat, clean, feature
/e/ heavy, ready, dead, head
/ei/ great, breaks
/i/ great, gearbox, bearing, wear, rear
/au/ ploy, power
/ou/ row, lower, mow, know, grow
2.Practise the following words.
mind the stress on the first syllable.
Pulley, crawler, gasoline, certain, distance, mobile, service,
useful, linkage, feature, popular, purpose.
b)mind the stress on the second syllable.
Between, provide, support, improve, include, perform,
design, adjust, supply, pneumatic.
3. Read the words and tell to which part of speech they belong. Prove it. Translate the words.
Various, adjustment, trailer, powerful, numerous, endless, possible, construction, equipment, feature, powerless, crawler, basic, adhesion.
4. Read the words. Give their meaning without consulting a dictionary.
Type, popular, structure, transmission, hydraulic, mechanism, function, machine.
5. Read and translate the words with negative prefixes an-, im-, in-, mis-.
Uncertain, uncommon, uncomfortable, undomunlike, immovable, improper, imperfect, incorrect, inactive, indifferent, inexpensive, misread, misprint, misunderstanding, misuse.
6. Read Text A.
7. Find the English equivalents to the following. Russian words. Use 5 of them in your own sentences.
Ведущая ось, гусеничный трактор, сцепное устройство, трехточечное сцепление, эффективность, конструктивные особенности, сеять, косить, сажать, пахать, бороновать, удобрять, орудие, навешивать, прицеплять, опускать, поднимать, пропашной трактор, вал отбора мощности, садово-огородный трактор, переднее колесо, заднее колесо, хлопок, хлебные культуры.
8. Give antonyms or synonyms to the following words. Use them in your sentences.
Back, to lower, to build, to make, crawler, work, drawbar.
9. Use the suitable words from the right column as …….. to the words in the left column:
Tractor: tracklaying, wheel, powerful, farm, hydras,
drawbar, heavy, axle;
implement power, mounted, engine, trailed, certain,
efficient, chitch, adjustable.
10. Fill in the suitable words:
Tractors provide power to the machines by means of …
Crawlers are constructed with two…
A tractor … various implements.
The tracklayers … heavy loads.
Implements are mounted on the tractor by means of …
Tractors are classified according to the job they …
Use the words: to pull, PTO-shaft, to perform, three -point linkage, track, to carry.
11. Give the meaning of the described devices and tractors:
a device used to mount implements on a tractor;
a device used to stop any machine;
a device used with a tractor to plow the soil;
a device that supplies power to the machines;
a tractor that works with cotton and vegetable crops;
a tractor equipped with load carrying platform;
a tractor equipped with tracks.
12. Put the Predicate into the Passive Voice in the following sentences.
A farmer uses a tractor in various farm operations.
Engineers designed tractors with certain features.
We classify tractors according to the work they perform.
Tractors drive numerous farm implements.
The engine produces power.
Designers equipped tractors with pneumatic tyres.
Tractors supply power for various machinery.
The hydraulic system lifts farm implements on to the tractor.
13. Use the verbs in the Present Indefinite Active or Preset Indefinite Passive.
Special tractors /to equip/ with auxiliary devices.
2.Tractors /to classify/ as wheeled and tracklaying tractors.
3.Road transport tractors /to pull/ load carrying platforms.
4.Garden tractors /to operate/ closer to the trees vines.
5.Tractors /to provide/ mobile power in agriculture.
6.Row-crop tractor /to use/ with different eff………mounted implements.
7.Crawlers /to operate/ on wet lands and heavy sandy soils.
8. Tracklayers /to produce/ with 2 tracks.
14. Read and translate the sentences with the modal verbs and their equivalents.
A tractor may be equipped with pneumatic tires or track.
A tracklayer must be used for heavy operation.
Crawlers are able to pull or push heavy loads.
Wheeled tractors may drive various implements.
The machinery used with tractors can drill, harrow or cultivate the soil.
Modern tractors are to have a PTO-shaft, hydraulic system, pneumatic tyres and a powerful engine.
15. Answer the questions.
Where can tractors be used?
What implements do tractors carry?
What farm operations must row crop tractors perform?
How can tractors be classified?
How can tractors differ?
How many wheels can a tractor have?
What parts must a tractor have?
16. Choose the right variant.
The general purpose tractor is used for:
work in gardens and orchards.
Various farm implements can be mounted on a tractor means of:
a three point linkage
Tractors are provided with certain features because:
they must operate economically and efficiently
they have to perform various jobs
they are the soueree of mobile power.
Road transport tractors are equipped with:
load carrying platform.
Tracklauers must have:
some special features
two pneumatic wheels.
17. Read Text B and answer the questions.
What are the principal parts of a modern tractor?
Why must engineers and designers construct new models of tractors?
OF MODERN TRACTORS
Farmers are the principal users of tractors. That is why tractor development is closely1 connected with agricultural operations. Engineers and designers constantly have to improve the models of tractors. Agriculture needs powerful machines that can provide efficient performance, easy operation, total quality and reliability and long service. Modern tractors are to be constructed with certain features. The basic parts of a tractor are the frame, the traction machinist, the efficient power unit, the transmission power system, the steering unit, the working and auxiliary devices.
The frame carries numerous parts that form the tractor.
To prevent tractor parts from damage three-point suspension is commonly used. Two points of the suspension are attached to the rear axle and one point is fitted to the middle of front axle.
The traction mechanism of a tractor may be of two types: pneumatic wheels or tracks. Tracks are more reliable on heavy, sandy or hilly lands where wheels don't provide perfect adhesion with the soil.
The power unit includes a powerful diesel or petrol engine in which fuel is converted into mechanical energy. Unlike3 a car engine tractor engine is low-speed. The engine may be air-cooled, or water cooled, the latter4 being more popular. To lubricate the engine, the force feed method is used.
The transmission system consists of a clutch, mechanically operated gear mechanism, shafts, axles, differential and drivers. The faction of this system is to transmit the power produced by the engine to the driving speeds of the tractor, operating in different conditions. The transmission system should be compact and reliable.
The steering unit causes the tractor to move, change speed and direction. The working equipment consists of a PTO-shaft, a pulley, a hydraulic system to mount mechanisms, a three-point linkage to control implements. The auxiliary5 equipment includes a cab and an operator's seat, heating system, light and sound control devices, etc. One has to know all parts of a tractor and keep them in order to use in with the highest efficiency.
3unlike-в отличии от
Active Vocabulary to text B
Improve-улучшать perfect-совершенный, полный
Cause-вызывать dual clutch-двойная муфта
Pulley-ременной шкив form-образовывать
Suspension-подвеска traction mechanism-ходовая часть
Fit-крепить steering-рулевое управление
Order-порядок force feed-принудительная смазка
1. Translate the following words into English.
Определенные черты, сельскохозяйственные работы, постоянное улучшение, ходовая часть, трехточечная подвеска, эффективный и надежный трактор, полная сцепка, метод принудительной смазки, основные части трактора, рабочие и вспомогательные приспособления, многочисленные части, гусеницы, песчаная почва, двигатель, низкоскоростной, валы, оси, передачи, система отопления.
Agree or disagree with the statements using:
It's right; It will do; Sure; I don't think so; I'm of a different opinion.
Tractors are more often used for military purposes than for farm jobs.
Modern tractors have a power unit, transmission system, steering unit, working and auxiliary equipment.
The frame must be rigid.
Three point suspension is attached to the front and rear axles.
Pneumatic wheels can be replayed by two tracks.
Tractors are always equipped with diesel engines.
Shafts, axles, drives, gears and a clutch are the parts of the transmission system.
Read the description of devices or systems and name them.
a rigid device to carry numerous parts that form a tractor.
a device that prevents tractor parts from damage;
device used to support the frame;
a device in which fuel is converted into mechanical energy;
a system that transmits power from the engine to the driving wheels;
a system that provides non-friction operation of the engine parts;
a system that controls the temperature of the engine;
a system that helps to mount implements.
4. Add some more facts to make the following statements more precise and complete.
The design of a tractor is connected with its function.
The basic parts of a tractor are a frame, an engine and working equipment.
The frame carries numerous parts of the tractor.
Three-point suspension is used on the tractor.
The traction mechanism is of two types.
The tractor has a power unit.
The function of the transmission system is to transmit the power.
Working and auxiliary equipment includes a hydraulic system to mound implements.
5. Describe some parts of a tractor.
a) the frame;
the power unit;
the transmission system.
A farm tractor is a self-propelled machine to be used with various implements. To reach the highest efficiency a driver of a farm tractor must know the constructive features of the machine, ways to adjust its systems, and must provide good maintenance of all its units and fast and proper attachment of farm equipment. The driver has to get the tractor ready1 for the operations to be performed. To work with mounted or semi-mounted2 implements the driver must prepare the hydraulic system, switch on the oil pump, adjust the three-point linkage. The width between the wheels should be hanged according to the crop rows. The diesel engine must be started during not more than 5 minutes. The starter must operate steadily at minimum, maximum revolutions and at full loading. Th tractor with the electrostarting engine must be easily started. The engine must operate at all modes without faults or smoke. For tractor overloading a small amount of smoke is permitted.
The chinch must be easily depressed disconnecting the engine and the transmission. When the clutch is on, it provides an easy start and easy gear shifts. The gear box, the rear axle and the terminal gears must operate with steady noise. The noise can't be sharp.
The levers, pedals and braces must move easily. The blocking of the differences or rear must wheels be switched on and off easily.
The drive gear to operate the PTO-shaft must be switched on and set at the proper rotation speed. The checking3 devices and warning lights4 for the tractor systems are to be examined as well.
1to get ready-подготовить
4warning lights-сигнальные лампы
Active Vocabulary to Text C
Revolution-оборот terminal gear-конечная передача
Mode-режим работы sharp-резкий
Overload-погружать lock-закрывать, блокировать
1.Read Text C. Find in the Text the English equivalents to the following Russian words and word combinations.
Стартер, запускать, рычаг, дифференциал, рулевое управление, конечная передача, включать выключать, перегружать, пробуксовка, повреждение, режим работы, муфта сцепления, коробка передач, оборот, задняя ось, тормоза, обслуживание.
2.What is the meaning of the prefix dis-? Use this prefix to form new words from the following ones. Translate them.
Comfort, like, place, order, mount, connect, close, agree, colour.
3.Find synonyms or antonyms to the following words.
Start, operate, move, attach, quick, mound, close, terminal, fault connect, fixed, maximum, switch on, various, prepare, service.
4.Find infinitives in the Text and determine their functions.
5.Put questions to the text.
6.Make up a plan with key-words and retell the text according to this plan.
7.Read the dialogue and reproduce it.
A: Our tractors are known to be very popular in America.
B: You are right. But they are sold at half price.
A: But why?
B: Because of their quality, I think. The models are outdated and badly constructed.
A: Are the American tractors better?
B: Sure. Their engines are more powerful.
A: How can our tractors sell at all then?
B: The American farmers say they are cheap and simple to operate.
8. Compose your own dialogues on the following situations.
Your tractor is out of order. You speak with a mechanic at the service station.
Working in the field you find out that some of your tractor's units need replacement. Ask your partner to help you.
9. Read and translate the texts in written form.
TRACTOR T-40 AM
The general purpose row crop wheeled tractor T-40 AM is a modified1 modelof the family of tractors of traction class 0,9. This tractor can be used with a rich selection of efficient farm tools specially designed for attachment to the tractor. The tractor can operate grain drills, hay making implements, harvesting machines, planters, mowers, potato diggers, etc. It provides various farm operations: plowing, interrow cultivation, sowing, harrowing, weeds and pests control, etc.
The T-40 AM has an efficient 4 stroke engine, a compact and reliable transmission system, a three-point implement controlling linkage, an automatically engaged front driving axle. High traction features and good passability may extend the field of usage of this tractor in agriculture.
Tracklayers are produced to perform difficult work in various fields of national economy. In agriculture crawlers are used for deep plowing of virgin1 and fen lands, and for heavy and sandy soils.
They operate together with mounted and trails machinery. A tracklaying tractor is equipped with two tracks, a powerful engine, a gearbox providing several forward and reverse speeds, and a hydraulic system to attach implements. PTO-shaft and three-point linkage are seldom fitted. The weight of a tractor is distributed2 over long tracks and its pressure upon the soil is not very high. Thus the soil is less damaged. The tracks provide more perfect adhesion with the soil. Crawlers are used for work in hilly country, for industrial and road construction, for carrying heavy loads, etc.
2 is distributed-распределяется
FAULTS AND REMEDIES1 OF THE ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT AND RELAY-REGULATORS
Modern tractors аre equipped with generators of 2 types: direct current generators and alternative current generators. The main problems with generators аre the following: stripping of the thread2 on the bolts, damage to the actuator coil insulation3 short-circuit of windings, wear of the pole shoes, or bearings, fractures4 on the surfaces and on the body, etc.
So you аre to do the following:
Remove the generator and replace the damaged5 insulation, insulating bushes, or gaskets.
Cover the actuator coils with insulating varnish and dry them at temperatures below 110-115oC for 3 hours.
Find the break in the soils, the short-circuit of the coil windings. If the coil is damaged, replace it.
Polish the pole shoes, repair the generator armature, repair the bearings necks and polish them too. Wash the generator covers.
In the alternative current generator, repair the generator rotor, polish and regulate the bearings necks.
Check the magnetic qualities of the rotor.
In relay-regulators we can detect the fractures, stripping of the thread, damage to the insulation and sealing gasket, wear of the terminals, etc. To repair these damages do the following:
Solder the fractures and replace the hermetic gasket of the body.
Polish the terminals.
Replace the damaged relay coil.
Check and regulate the current data.
1faults and remedies-неполадки и способы их устранения
2strip of the thread-срыв резьбы
What is main function of a tractor?
How can tractors be classified?
What farm jobs can tractors perform?
What are the certain features of modern tractor?
What farm implements can a tractor operate what?
What is a frаme used for?
What can you say about the power unit?
What are the main part of transmission system?
What must the driver do to reach the highest efficiency of tractor operation?
Why is necessary to check all tractor system before use?
What faults can be detected?
How must the main tractor mechanisms operate?
What generators are used in tractor?
What should you do case of generator fault?
What can you detect in case of relay-regulator fault?
What role does starter perform?
How can we repair the starter?
What causes faults in the gearbox and in the rear axle?
What are the hydraulic system faults?
Why must engineers and designers construct new models tractors?
1. Брискина К.Ш. English for Technical Students. Киев, 2011.
2. Чистик М.Я. English for Technical Students. М. 2012.
3. The Comprehensive English-Russian scientific and technical dictionary. М., 2011.